Xanthine oxidase inhibitor: A xanthine oxidase inhibitor is any substance that inhibits the activity of xanthine oxidase, an enzyme involved in purine metabolism. In humans, inhibition of xanthine oxidase reduces the production of uric acid, and several medications that inhibit xanthine oxidase are indicated for treatment of hyperuricemia and related medical conditions including gout.EtamiphyllineXanthinuriaEnprofyllineAllopurinolOxypurinolMolybdenum: Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42. The name is from Neo-Latin molybdaenum, from Ancient Greek , meaning lead, since its ores were confused with lead ores.Aldehyde oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase, a/b hammerhead domain: E:28-142 E:35-144 B:35-144PteridineATC code M04: ==M04A Antigout preparations==Powdered milk: Powdered milk or dried milk is a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness. One purpose of drying milk is to preserve it; milk powder has a far longer shelf life than liquid milk and does not need to be refrigerated, due to its low moisture content.Potassium superoxideFree-radical reaction: A free-radical reaction is any chemical reaction involving free radicals. This reaction type is abundant in organic reactions.PurineAldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase: In enzymology, an aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase () is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reactionIron(II) hydroxideSuperoxide dismutase: Superoxide dismutase (SOD, ) is an enzyme that alternately catalyzes the dismutation (or partitioning) of the superoxide (O2−) radical into either ordinary molecular oxygen (O2) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Superoxide is produced as a by-product of oxygen metabolism and, if not regulated, causes many types of cell damage.Table of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.Zero field splitting: Zero field splitting describes various interactions of the energy levels of an electron spin (S>1/2) even in the absence of an applied magnetic field. It is important in the electron spin resonance of biological molecules.Sodium tungstateTheobromineOxidoreductase FAD-binding domain: B:7-104 B:7-104 B:7-104Cofactor Engineering: Cofactor engineering, a subset of metabolic engineering, is defined as the manipulation of the use of cofactors in an organism’s metabolic pathways. In cofactor engineering, the concentrations of cofactors are changed in order to maximize or minimize metabolic fluxes.HydroxylRasburicaseVaporized hydrogen peroxide: Vaporized hydrogen peroxide — also known as hydrogen peroxide vapor, HPV, and by the trademarked name VHP — is a vapor form of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with applications as a low-temperature antimicrobial vapor used to decontaminate enclosed and sealed areas such as laboratory workstations, isolation and pass-through rooms, and even aircraft interiors.Mitochondrial ROS: Mitochondrial ROS (mtROS or mROS) are reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are produced by mitochondria. Generation of mitochondrial ROS mainly takes place at the electron transport chain located on the inner mitochondrial membrane during the process of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS).Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Dithionous acidBurst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Arteriovenous oxygen difference: The arteriovenous oxygen difference, or a-vO2 diff, is the difference in the oxygen content of the blood between the arterial blood and the venous blood. It is an indication of how much oxygen is removed from the blood in capillaries as the blood circulates in the body.Catalase: Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms exposed to oxygen (such as bacteria, plants, and animals). It catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen.Nucleobase cation symporter-1GahArabinosyltransferase: In molecular biology, an arabinosyltransferase is a transferase enzyme acting upon arabinose."Reconstitution of functional mycobacterial arabinosyltransferase AftC proteoliposome and assessment of decaprenylphosphorylarabinose analogues as arabinofuranosyl donors.PterinLiver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GITheophyllineAdenosine receptor: The adenosine receptors (or P1 receptors) are a class of purinergic G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as endogenous ligand.Tetratricopeptide: B:89-122 A:522-555 B:228-261XanthopterinTroloxFlavin groupVeillonella parvula: Veillonella parvula is a bacterium in the genus Veillonella. It is a normal part of the oral flora but can be associated with diseases such as periodontitis and dental caries as well as various systemic infections.Allantoic acidWujing Zongyao: The Wujing Zongyao (), or the Complete Essentials for the Military Classics, is a Chinese military compendium written from around 1040 to 1044. It contains the earliest known written formulas for gunpowder, made from saltpeter, sulphur, and charcoal, along with many added ingredients.Spectrophotometry: In chemistry, spectrophotometry is the quantitative measurement of the reflection or transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength.Allen, D.Gene transfer agent: A gene transfer agent or "GTA" is a bacteriophage-like element produced by several bacteria that mediates horizontal gene transfer. GTAs package random segments of DNA present in the host bacterium, which can be transduced to a recipient cell.Purine nucleotide cycle: The Purine Nucleotide Cycle is a metabolic pathway in which fumarate is generated from aspartate in order to increase the concentration of Krebs cycle intermediates.Salway, J.CaffeineGlucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family: In molecular biology, the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family (GMC oxidoreductase) is a family of enzymes with oxidoreductase activity.HyponitriteNitrobenzaldehyde: Nitrobenzaldehyde may refer to any of the three isomeric chemical compounds :HyperuricemiaIron stress repressed RNA: Iron stress repressed RNA (IsrR) is a cis-encoded antisense RNA which regulates the expression of the photosynthetic protein isiA. IsiA expression is activated by the Ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) under iron stress conditions.MyosminePeroxynitrous acidAllopurinol hypersensitivity syndromeConcentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Glucose oxidase: ; }}PhenacylLodenosineTriiodideDioxetane: A dioxetane or dioxacyclobutane is an organic compound with formula C2O2H4, whose backbone is a four-membered ring of two oxygen atoms and two carbon atoms. There are two isomers:PentoxifyllineLipid peroxidationTrimethyloxonium tetrafluoroborateHigh-performance liquid chromatography: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; formerly referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify, and quantify each component in a mixture. It relies on pumps to pass a pressurized liquid solvent containing the sample mixture through a column filled with a solid adsorbent material.