Non-rapid eye movement sleepEffects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance: It has been estimated that over 20% of adults suffer from some form of sleep deprivation. Insomnia and sleep deprivation are common symptoms of depression and can be an indication of other mental disorders.Quantitative electroencephalography: Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) is a field concerned with the numerical analysis of electroencephalography data and associated behavioral correlates.Low arousal theory: Low arousal}}PolysomnographyNarcolepsyMidnight: Midnight is the transition time period from one day to the next: the moment when the date changes. In ancient Roman timekeeping, midnight was halfway between sunset and sunrise, varying according to the seasons.Neuropeptide S: Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a neuropeptide found in human and mammalian brain, mainly produced by neurons in the amygdala and between Barrington's nucleus and the locus coeruleus, although NPS-responsive neurons extend projections into many other brain areas. NPS binds specifically to a newly de-orphaned G protein-coupled receptor, NPSR.Medial lemniscus: The medial lemniscus, also known as Reil's band or Reil's ribbon, is a large ascending bundle of heavily myelinated axons that decussate in the brain stem, specifically in the medulla. The medial lemniscus is formed by the crossings of internal arcuate fibers.SuvorexantAging movement control: Normal aging movement control in humans is about the changes on the muscles, motor neurons, nerves, sensory functions, gait, fatigue, visual and manual responses, in men and women as they get older but who do not have neurological, muscular (atrophy, dystrophy...) or neuromuscular disorder.Caudal pontine reticular nucleus: The caudal pontine reticular nucleus or nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis is composed of gigantocellular neurons.Sinus of Morgagni (pharynx): In the pharynx, the sinus of Morgagni is the enclosed space between the upper border of the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle, the base of the skull and the pharyngeal aponeurosis.Gray's Anatomy 1918, Chapter: The PharynxBifemelaneElectrooculographyMicrosleepCheyne–Stokes respirationDimefoxApnea–hypopnea index: The Apnea–Hypopnea Index or Apnoea–Hypopnoea Index (AHI) is an index used to indicate the severity of sleep apnea. It is represented by the number of apnea and hypopnea events per hour of sleep.CataplexyLaterodorsal tegmental nucleus: The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (or lateroposterior tegmental nucleus) is a nucleus situated in the brainstem, spanning the midbrain tegmentum and the pontine tegmentum. Its location is one-third of the way from the pedunculopontine nucleus to the thalamus, inferior to the pineal gland.Iron Lung (band)Hippo signaling pathway: The Hippo signaling pathway, also known as the Salvador/Warts/Hippo (SWH) pathway, controls organ size in animals through the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. The pathway takes its name from one of its key signaling components—the protein kinase Hippo (Hpo).Delta sleep-inducing peptide: Delta sleep-inducing peptide, abbreviated DSIP, is a neuropeptide that when infused into the mesodiencephalic ventricle ofObstructive sleep apneaShivering: Shivering (also called rigors or shuddering) is a bodily function in response to early hypothermia or just feeling cold in warm-blooded animals. When the core body temperature drops, the shivering reflex is triggered to maintain homeostasis.Permissive hypercapnia: Permissive hypercapnia is hypercapnia, (i.e.Disorders of consciousness: Disorders of consciousness are medical conditions that inhibit consciousness. Some define disorders of consciousness as any change from complete self-awareness to inhibited or absent self-awareness.BalloonAdvanced sleep phase disorderSleepwalking: Who.intCats in the United States: Many different species of mammal can be classified as cats (felids) in the United States. These include domestic cat (both house cats and feral), of the species Felis catus; medium-sized wild cats from the genus Lynx; and big cats from the genera Puma and Panthera.Tuberomammillary nucleus: The tuberomammillary nucleus is a subnucleus of the posterior third of the hypothalamus. It consists of, largely, histaminergic neurons (i.Beta-Phenylmethamphetamine: β-Phenylmethamphetamine (N,α-dimethyl-β-phenyl-phenethylamine) is a potent and long lasting stimulant drug.Pharmazie 1973;28(10):677.Stream of unconsciousness (narrative mode): In literary criticism, stream of unconsciousness is a narrative mode that portrays an individual's point of view by transcribing the author's unconscious dialogue or somniloquy during sleep, in connection to his or her actions within a dream."Episode 5: Recent Sleep Works.HSD2 neurons: HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. They are located within the caudal medulla oblongata, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).InsomniaCentral chemoreceptors: Central chemoreceptors of the central nervous system, located on the ventrolateral medullary surface in the vicinity of the exit of the 9th and 10th cranial nerves, are sensitive to the pH of their environment.TBR1: T-box, brain, 1 is a transcription factor protein important in vertebrate embryo development. It is encoded by the TBR1 gene.List of countries by carbon dioxide emissionsNightmare: A nightmare is an unpleasant dream that can cause a strong emotional response from the mind, typically fear but also despair, anxiety and great sadness. The dream may contain situations of discomfort, psychological or physical terror.Ventral spinocerebellar tract: The ventral spinocerebellar tract conveys proprioceptive information from the body to the cerebellum. It is part of the somatosensory system and runs in parallel with the dorsal spinocerebellar tract.Central sleep apnea: Central sleep apnea (CSA) or central sleep apnea syndrome (CSAS) is a sleep-related disorder in which the effort to breathe is diminished or absent, typically for 10 to 30 seconds, either intermittently or in cycles and is usually associated with a reduction in blood oxygen saturation. It is a collective term referring to two breathing disorders: Cheyne-Stokes respiration and periodic breathing.Locus coeruleus: The locus coeruleus (\-si-ˈrü-lē-əs\, also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus a bluish area of the brain stem with many norepinephrine-containing neurons|url = http://www.merriam-webster.TemazepamTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingQualia: In philosophy, qualia ( or ; singular form: quale) are individual instances of subjective, conscious experience. The term "qualia" derives from the Latin neuter plural form (qualia) of the Latin adjective quālis () meaning "of what sort" or "of what kind").Plateau pressure: Plateau pressure (PPLAT) is the pressure applied to small airways and alveoli during positive-pressure mechanical ventilation.Morgan, Edward G.Melanin-concentrating hormone receptor: Two Melanin-concentrating hormone receptors (MCHR) have recently been characterized: MCH-R1 and MCH-R2. These two receptors share approximately 38% homology.HR 1614Benign neonatal sleep myoclonus: Benign neonatal sleep myoclonus (BNSM) is the occurrence of myoclonus (jerky movements) during sleep. It is not associated with seizures.Hydrate: In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements. The chemical state of the water varies widely between different classes of hydrates, some of which were so labeled before their chemical structure was understood.Nonbenzodiazepine: Nonbenzodiazepines (sometimes referred to colloquially as "Z-drugs") are a class of psychoactive drugs that are very benzodiazepine-like in nature. Nonbenzodiazepines pharmacodynamics are almost entirely the same as benzodiazepine drugs and therefore employ similar benefits, side-effects, and risks.Singer BantamPedunculopontine nucleus: The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) (or pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, PPTN or PPTg) is located in the brainstem, caudal to the substantia nigra and adjacent to the superior cerebellar peduncle. It has two divisions, one containing cholinergic neurons, the pars compacta, and one containing mostly glutamatergic neurons, the pars dissipata.Nucleus basalis of Meynert: Nucleus basalis of Meynert, abbreviated NBM and also known as the nucleus basalis, is a group of neurons in the substantia innominata of the basal forebrain which has wide projections to the neocortex and is rich in acetylcholine and choline acetyltransferase.Diaphragmatic excursion: Diaphragmatic excursion is the movement of the thoracic diaphragm during breathing.Alpha waveRostral ventromedial medulla: The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), or ventromedial nucleus of the spinal cord, is a group of neurons located close to the midline on the floor of the medulla oblongata (myelencephalon). The rostral ventromedial medulla sends descending inhibitory and excitatory fibers to the dorsal horn spinal cord neurons.Serotonergic cell groups: Serotonergic cell groups refer to collections of neurons in the central nervous system that have been demonstrated by histochemical fluorescence to contain the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine). Since they are for the most part localized to classical brainstem nuclei, particularly the raphe nuclei, they are more often referred to by the names of those nuclei than by the B1-9 nomenclature.Median preoptic nucleus: The median preoptic nucleus is located dorsal to the other three nuclei of the preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is located just beneath the thalamus, the main sensory relay station of the nervous system, and is considered part of the limbic system, which also includes structures such as the hippocampus and the amygdala.Melatonin: Melanotan|Melanin}}Proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptorsContinuous positive airway pressure: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a form of positive airway pressure ventilator, which applies mild air pressure on a continuous basis to keep the airways continuously open in a patient who is unable to breathe spontaneously on his or her own. It is an alternative to positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP).Demodulation: Demodulation is the act of extracting the original information-bearing signal from a modulated carrier wave. A demodulator is an electronic circuit (or computer program in a software-defined radio) that is used to recover the information content from the modulated carrier wave.Hypoglossal trigone: In the upper part of the medulla oblongata, the hypoglossal nucleus approaches the rhomboid fossa, where it lies close to the middle line, under an eminence named the hypoglossal trigone.