Vocal folds: The vocal folds, also known commonly as vocal cords or voice reeds, are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally, from back to front, across the larynx. They vibrate, modulating the flow of air being expelled from the lungs during phonation.Vocal cord paresisMallampati scoreInfraglottic cavity: The infraglottic cavity is the portion of the larynx below the laryngeal ventricles and the rima glottidis.Epineurium: The epineurium is the outermost layer of dense irregular connective tissue surrounding a peripheral nerve. It usually surrounds multiple nerve fascicles as well as blood vessels which supply the nerve.Posterior cricoarytenoid muscle: The posterior cricoarytenoid muscles are extremely small, paired muscles that extend from the posterior cricoid cartilage to the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx.Neuromere: Neuromeres are morphologically or molecularly defined transient segments of the early developing brain. Rhombomeres are such segments that make up the rhombencephalon or hindbrain.Exonic splicing enhancer: In molecular biology, an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) is a DNA sequence motif consisting of 6 bases within an exon that directs, or enhances, accurate splicing of heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) or pre-mRNA into messenger RNA (mRNA).Glottis: The glottis is defined as the opening between the vocal folds Ladefoged, Peter. 2006.Janwillem van den Berg: Janwillem van den Berg (20 November 1920 in Akkrum – 18 October 1985 in Akkrum) was a Dutch speech scientist and medical physicist who played a major role in establishing the myoelastic-aerodynamic theoryTitze, I. R.List of voice disorders: Voice disordersTitze, I.R.Dysprosody: Dysprosody, which may manifest as pseudo-foreign accent syndrome, refers to a disorder in which one or more of the prosodic functions are either compromised or eliminated completely.Rehabilitation in spinal cord injury: When treating a person with a spinal cord injury, repairing the damage created by injury is the ultimate goal. By using a variety of treatments, greater improvements are achieved, and, therefore, treatment should not be limited to one method.Song control system: A song system, also known as a song control system (SCS), is a series of discrete brain nuclei involved in the production and learning of song in songbirds. It was first observed by Fernando Nottebohm in 1976 in a paper titled "Central control of song in the canary, Serinus canarius", published in the Journal of Comparative Neurology.Methanesulfonic acidCricoid cartilage: The cricoid cartilage , or simply cricoid (from the Greek krikoeides meaning "ring-shaped"), is the only complete ring of cartilage around the trachea. It forms the back part of the voice box and functions as an attachment site for muscles, cartilages, and ligaments involved in opening and closing the airway and in producing speech.Voice changer: The term voice changer (also known as voice enhancer) refers to a system of altering a person's voice to either make them sound like someone else or to disguise their voice.History of tracheal intubation: Tracheal intubation (usually simply referred to as intubation), an invasive medical procedure, is the placement of a flexible plastic catheter into the trachea. For millennia, tracheotomy was considered the most reliable (and most risky) method of tracheal intubation.Rima glottidis: The rima glottidis is the opening between the true vocal cords and the arytenoid cartilages.Subglottic stenosisPhotocopier: A photocopier (also known as a copier or copy machine) is a machine that makes paper copies (AKA PhotoCopy) of documents and other visual images quickly and cheaply. Most current photocopiers use a technology called xerography, a dry process that uses electrostatic charges on a light sensitive photoreceptor to first attract and then transfer toner particles (a powder) onto paper in the form of an image.Gail Robinson (soprano): Gail Robinson (7 August 1946 – 19 October 2008) was an American operatic soprano who sang with many of the world's leading opera companies during the 1970s and 1980s. She spent most of her career singing lyric coloratura roles at the Metropolitan Opera.Umbilical cord compressionAmorphous Selenium Flat Panel Detectors: Amorphous Selenium Flat Panel Detectors are direct conversion x-ray imagers, used in digital radiography for medical imaging applications. Direct conversion imagers utilize photoconductors, such as amorphous selenium (a-Se), to capture and convert incident x-ray photons directly into electric charge.Belting (music): Belting (or vocal belting) is a specific technique of singing by which a singer brings their chest register above its natural passaggio (break) at a loud volume; instead, an alternative production is developed, often described and felt as supported and sustained yelling. 'Belting' is sometimes described as 'high chest voice' but this is technically incorrect and potentially damaging for the voice.Hydrogen darkening: Hydrogen darkening is a physical degradation of the optical properties of glass. Free hydrogen atoms are able to bind to the SiO2 silica glass compound forming hydroxyl (OH) - a chemical compound that interferes with the passage of light through the glass.Spasmodic dysphonia: Spasmodic dysphonia (or laryngeal dystonia) is a voice disorder characterized by involuntary movements or spasms of one or more muscles of the larynx (vocal folds or voice box) during speech.Piriform sinus: On either side of the laryngeal orifice is a recess, termed the piriform sinus (also piriform recess, pyriform sinus, piriform fossa, or smuggler's fossa), which is bounded medially by the aryepiglottic fold, laterally by the thyroid cartilage and thyrohyoid membrane. The fossae are involved in speech.William Finch (merchant): William Finch (died 1613) was an English merchant.TracheotomyLeukoplakiaUltrastructural Pathology: Ultrastructural Pathology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal devoted entirely to diagnostic ultrastructural pathology. The journal covers advances in the uses of electron microscopic and immunohistochemical techniques, correlations of ultrastructural data with light microscopy, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, biochemistry, cell and tissue culturing, electron probe analysis, and investigative, clinical, and diagnostic EM methods.Silence of the Songbirds: Silence of the Songbirds (ISBN 978-0-8027-1609-5) is a book by bird lover and scientist Bridget Stutchbury about the rapid decline and loss of many species of songbirds. Some major threats covered include pesticides, sun-grown coffee, city lights, cowbirds, and global warming.Front vowel: A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The defining characteristic of a front vowel is that the tongue is positioned as far in front as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.Sinus of Morgagni (pharynx): In the pharynx, the sinus of Morgagni is the enclosed space between the upper border of the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle, the base of the skull and the pharyngeal aponeurosis.Gray's Anatomy 1918, Chapter: The PharynxFirst Strike CoinsOnuf's nucleus: Onuf’s nucleus is a distinct group of neurons located in the ventral part (laminae IX) of the anterior horn of the sacral region of the human spinal cord involved in the maintenance of micturition and defecatory continence, as well as muscular contraction during orgasm. It contains motor neurons, and is the origin of the pudendal nerve.Acoustics Research InstituteParkinson plus syndrome: Parkinson-plus syndromes, also known as disorders of multiple system degeneration, is a group of neurodegenerative diseases featuring the classical features of Parkinson's disease (tremor, rigidity, akinesia/bradykinesia, postural instability) with additional features that distinguish them from simple idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Some consider Alzheimer's disease to be in this group.Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease: Charcot disease}}Kymograph: A kymograph (which means 'wave writer') is a device that gives a graphical representation of spatial position over time in which a spatial axis represents time. It basically consists of a revolving drum wrapped with a sheet of paper on which a stylus moves back and forth recording perceived changes of phenomena such as motion or pressure.Lidocaine/prilocaineTruebeamSir Robert Charles Griggs: Sir Robert Charles Griggs (born 1936) is a country and jazz musician living in Hemet, CA.Canine degenerative myelopathy: Canine degenerative myelopathy, also known as chronic degenerative radiculomyelopathy, is an incurable, progressive disease of the canine spinal cord that is similar in many ways to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Onset is typically after the age of 7 years and it is seen most frequently in the German shepherd dog, Pembroke Welsh corgi, and boxer dog, though the disorder is strongly associated with a gene mutation in SOD1 that has been found in 43 breeds as of 2008, including the wire fox terrier, Chesapeake Bay retriever, Rhodesian ridgeback, and Cardigan Welsh corgi.Francis George Atkinson: Francis George Atkinson (1874 – 6 December 1902) was the first district officer in Jesselton at British North Borneo.Flaccid paralysisHyoepiglottic ligament: The hyoepiglottic ligament is an elastic band connecting the anterior surface of the epiglottis to the upper border of the body of the hyoid bone. It is clinically important in performing direct laryngoscopy with a Macintosh laryngoscope blade; the blade tip is placed in the vallecula and moved anteriorly, which causes the hyoepiglottic ligament to pull the epiglottis anteriorly as well and thus expose the glottis.ThyroidectomyNicholas Horner: Nicholas Horner (died 4 March 1590) was an English Roman Catholic layman, hanged, drawn and quartered because he had relieved and assisted Christopher Bales, a seminary priest. He is a Catholic martyr, beatified in 1987.Trabeculoplasty: Trabeculoplasty is a laser treatment for glaucoma. It is done on an argon laser equipped slit lamp, using a Goldmann gonioscope lens mirror.Vibration white finger: Vibration white finger (VWF), also known as hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) or dead finger,) is a secondary form of Raynaud's syndrome, an industrial injury triggered by continuous use of vibrating hand-held machinery. Use of the term "vibration white finger" has generally been superseded in professional usage by broader concept of HAVS, although it is still used by the general public.Master of Advanced Studies in Interaction Design (MAIND), SUPSISoft lithography: In technology, soft lithography refers to a family of techniques for fabricating or replicating structures using "elastomeric stamps, molds, and conformable photomasks".In the words of Rogers and Nuzzo, p.Nerve biopsySilicone resin: rightTambopata Macaw ProjectSilent speech interface: Silent speech interface is a device that allows speech communication without using the sound made when people vocalize their speech sounds. As such it is a type of electronic lip reading.Pampiniform venous plexus: The pampiniform plexus is a network of many small veins found in the human male spermatic cord. It is formed by the union of multiple spermatic veins from the back of the testis and tributaries from the epididymis.