Spirometer: A spirometer is an apparatus for measuring the volume of air inspired and expired by the lungs. A spirometer measures ventilation, the movement of air into and out of the lungs.Lung receptor: Lung receptors sense irritation or inflammation in the bronchi and alveoli.EprozinolChronic lung diseaseEffect of oxygen on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: In some individuals, the effect of oxygen on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is to cause increased carbon dioxide retention, which may cause drowsiness, headaches, and in severe cases lack of respiration, which may lead to death. People with lung ailments or with central respiratory depression, who receive supplemental oxygen, require careful monitoring.Cheyne–Stokes respirationSwiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research: Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), founded in 1988, performs basic research in the field of allergy and asthma with the aim to improve the understanding and treatment of these conditions, which affect around 30-40% of the westernized population. The Institute has its roots in the Tuberculosis Research Institute of Davos, a medical society founded in 1905 to study the beneficial effects of high altitude treatment of tuberculosis.Bronchodilator: A bronchodilator is a substance that dilates the bronchi and bronchioles, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and increasing airflow to the lungs. Bronchodilators may be endogenous (originating naturally within the body), or they may be medications administered for the treatment of breathing difficulties.SpirometryDimefoxMethacholinePulmonary interstitial emphysemaNintedanibEosinophilic bronchitis: Eosinophilic bronchitis is a type of airway inflammation due to excessive mast cell recruitment and activation in the superficial airways as opposed to the smooth muscles of the airways as seen in asthma. It often results in a chronic cough.Mineral dust: Mineral dust is a term used to indicate atmospheric aerosols originated from the suspension of minerals constituting the soil, being composed of various oxides and carbonates. Human activities lead to 30% of the dust load in the atmosphere.Plateau pressure: Plateau pressure (PPLAT) is the pressure applied to small airways and alveoli during positive-pressure mechanical ventilation.Morgan, Edward G.Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema: Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema describes a medical syndrome involving both pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. The combination is most commonly found in male smokers.Non-specific interstitial pneumonia: Non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is a form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia.Fields' disease: Fields' disease is considered to be one of the rarest known diseases in the world, with only two diagnosed cases in history. It is named after Welsh twins Catherine and Kirstie Fields.Scoliosis Research SocietyPlethysmographVentolin (EP): "Ventolin" is a piece of electronic music composed by Cornish musician Richard D James. It is noted for its harsh, abrasive sound.PneumoconiosisTiotropium bromide: (cation)Respiratory Therapy Society of Ontario: The Respiratory Therapy Society of Ontario is a non-profit organization of respiratory therapists and other healthcare professionals devoted to the promotion of Respiratory Therapy in the province of Ontario.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingOccupational hygiene: Occupational (or "industrial" in the U.S.Treadmill: A treadmill is a device generally for walking or running while staying in the same place. Treadmills were introduced before the development of powered machines, to harness the power of animals or humans to do work, often a type of mill that was operated by a person or animal treading steps of a treadwheel to grind grain.Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes: Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is diabetes specifically caused by cystic fibrosis, a genetic condition. Cystic fibrosis related diabetes mellitus (CFRD) develops with age, and the median age at diagnosis is 21 years.Helium-3Systemic sclerodermaSaturation diving: Saturation diving is a diving technique that allows divers to reduce the risk of decompression sickness ("the bends") when they work at great depths for long periods of time.Habit cough: A habit cough (also known as psychogenic cough and pseudoasthma) is a cough that may develop in children or adolescents after a cold or other airway irritant. It has also been reported in adults.Pursed lip breathing: Pursed lip breathing (PLB) is the breathing technique that consists of exhaling through tightly pressed (pursed lips) and inhaling through nose with mouth closed. Physicians, physical therapists, occupational therapists, and respiratory therapists teach this technique to their patients to ease shortness of breath and to promote deep breathing, also referred to as abdominal or diaphragmatic breathing.Ipratropium bromideUpper-limb surgery in tetraplegia: Upper-limb surgery in tetraplegia includes a number of surgical interventions that can help improve the quality of life of a patient with tetraplegia.BronchiectasisFenoterolMax Schede: Max Schede (January 7, 1844 – December 31, 1902) was a German surgeon born in Arnsberg.Flat-chested kitten syndrome: Flat-chested kitten syndrome (FCKS), is a disorder in cats, wherein kittens develop a compression of the thorax (chest/ribcage) caused by vertebral malformation. In mild cases, the underside of the chest becomes flattened (hence the name of the condition); in extreme cases the entire thorax is flattened, looking as if the kitten has been stepped on.Placebo-controlled study: Placebo-controlled studies are a way of testing a medical therapy in which, in addition to a group of subjects that receives the treatment to be evaluated, a separate control group receives a sham "placebo" treatment which is specifically designed to have no real effect. Placebos are most commonly used in blinded trials, where subjects do not know whether they are receiving real or placebo treatment.Arteriovenous oxygen difference: The arteriovenous oxygen difference, or a-vO2 diff, is the difference in the oxygen content of the blood between the arterial blood and the venous blood. It is an indication of how much oxygen is removed from the blood in capillaries as the blood circulates in the body.Aerosolization: Aerosolization is the process or act of converting some physical substance into the form of particles small and light enough to be carried on the air i.e.Air displacement pipetteBronchial hyperresponsiveness: Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (or other combinations with airway or hyperreactivity) is a state characterised by easily triggered bronchospasm (contraction of the bronchioles or small airways).Metallurgy: Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. Metallurgy is also the technology of metals: the way in which science is applied to the production of metals, and the engineering of metal components for usage in products for consumers and manufacturers.Breath carbon monoxide: Breath carbon monoxide is the level of carbon monoxide in a person's exhalation. It can be measured in a breath carbon monoxide test, generally by using a carbon monoxide breath monitor (breath CO monitor), such as for motivation and education for smoking cessation and also as a clinical aid in assessing carbon monoxide poisoning.Bronchoconstriction: Bronchoconstriction is the constriction of the airways in the lungs due to the tightening of surrounding smooth muscle, with consequent coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.Hot water storage tank: A hot water storage tank (also called a hot water tank, thermal storage tank, hot water thermal storage unit, heat storage tank and hot water cylinder) is a water tank that is used for storing hot water for space heating or domestic use. A heavily insulated tank can retain heat for days.List of countries by carbon dioxide emissionsMethylatropine