Co-option (biology)Endocytosis: Endocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell ([+ cytosis]) by engulfing them in an [[energy-using process. Endocytosis and its counterpart, exocytosis, are used by all cells because most chemical substances important to them are large polar molecules that cannot pass through the hydrophobic plasma or cell membrane by passive means.Mycovirus: Mycoviruses (ancient Greek μύκης mykes: fungus and Latin virus) are viruses that infect fungi. The majority of mycoviruses have double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genomes and isometric particles, but approximately 30% have positive sense, single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) genomes.Generalized vaccinia: Generalized vaccinia is a cutaneous condition that occurs 6-9 days after vaccination, characterized by a generalized eruption of skin lesions, and caused by the vaccinia virus.Clathrin adaptor proteins: Proteins synthesized on the ribosome and processed in the endoplasmic reticulum are transported from the Golgi apparatus to the trans-Golgi network (TGN), and from there via small carrier vesicles to their final destination compartment. These vesicles have specific coat proteins (such as clathrin or coatomer) that are important for cargo selection and direction of transport.Wound tumor virus: Wound tumor virus is an invertebrate and plant virus found in the United States of America belonging to the genus Phytoreovirus and the family Reoviridae. The virus is a Type III virus under the Baltimore classification system; that is it has a double-stranded RNA genome.Nudivirus: A nudivirus (family Nudiviridae) is a large, rod-shaped virus with a circular, double stranded DNA genome of 96–231 kb. The genome encodes 98 to 154 open reading frames.Defective interfering particle: In virology, defective interfering particles (DIPs), also known as defective interfering viruses, are spontaneously generated virus mutants in which a critical portion of the particle's genome has been lost due to defective replication. DIPs are derived from and associated with their parent virus, and particles are classed as DIPs if they are rendered non-infectious due to at least one essential gene of the virus being lost or severely damaged as a result of the defection.Sindbis virusCD46: CD46 complement regulatory protein also known as CD46 (cluster of differentiation 46) and Membrane Cofactor Protein is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CD46 gene. CD46 is an inhibitory complement receptor.Rabies virus: The rabies virus is a neurotropic virus that causes rabies in humans and animals. Rabies transmission can occur through the saliva of animals and less commonly through contact with human saliva.Global spread of H5N1 in 2006: The global spread of (highly pathogenic) H5N1 in birds is considered a significant pandemic threat.Baby hamster kidney cell: Baby Hamster Kidney fibroblasts (aka BHK cells) are an adherent cell line used in molecular biology.Coles PhillipsHepatitis B virus precore mutant: A precore mutant is a variety of hepatitis B virus that does not produce hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg). These mutants are important because infections caused by these viruses are difficult to treat, and can cause infections of prolonged duration and with a higher risk of liver cirrhosis.West Nile virus in the United States: The West Nile virus quickly spread across the United States after the first reported cases in Queens, New York in 1999. The virus is believed to have entered in an infected bird or mosquito, although there is no clear evidence.Kurtz (Heart of Darkness): Kurtz is a central fictional character in Joseph Conrad's novella Heart of Darkness. A trader of ivory in Africa and commander of a trading post, he monopolises his position as a demigod among native Africans.Cell membraneProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Endosome: In biology, an endosome is a membrane-bounded compartment inside eukaryotic cells. It is a compartment of the endocytic membrane transport pathway from the plasma membrane to the lysosome.Vesicular stomatitis virus: Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) (often still referred to as VSV) is a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae; the well-known rabies virus belongs to the same family. VSIV can infect insects, cattle, horses and pigs.RNA transfection: RNA transfection is the process of deliberately introducing RNA into a living cell. RNA can be purified from cells after lysis or synthesized from free nucleotides either chemically, or enzymatically using an RNA polymerase to transcribe a DNA template.
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