Medical ventilator: A medical ventilator (or simply ventilator in context) is a machine designed to mechanically move breathable air into and out of the lungs, to provide the mechanism of breathing for a patient who is physically unable to breathe, or breathing insufficiently.Spontaneous breathing trial: A goal for most patients on mechanical ventilation is to be weaned from the ventilator. The weaning process is highly dependent on the patient's pathology, but the final common pathway to ventilator independence always includes at least one trial of spontaneous breathing.Peak inspiratory pressure: Peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) is the highest level of pressure applied to the lungs during inhalation. In mechanical ventilation the number reflects a positive pressure in centimeters of water pressure (cmH2O).Dynamic strain aging: Although sometimes dynamic strain aging is used interchangeably with the Portevin–Le Chatelier effect (or serrated yielding), dynamic strain aging refers specifically to the microscopic mechanism that induces the Portevin–Le Chatelier effect. This strengthening mechanism is related to solid-solution strengthening and has been observed in a variety of fcc and bcc substitutional and interstitial alloys, metalloids like silicon, and ordered intermetallics within specific ranges of temperature and strain rate.Nasal EPAPPlateau pressure: Plateau pressure (PPLAT) is the pressure applied to small airways and alveoli during positive-pressure mechanical ventilation.Morgan, Edward G.Beta encoder: A beta encoder is an analog to digital conversion (A/D) system in which a real number in the unit interval is represented by a finite representation of a sequence in base beta, with beta being a real number between 1 and 2. Beta encoders are an alternative to traditional approaches to pulse code modulation.Cheyne–Stokes respirationIron Lung (band)Ventilator-associated pneumoniaHistory of tracheal intubation: Tracheal intubation (usually simply referred to as intubation), an invasive medical procedure, is the placement of a flexible plastic catheter into the trachea. For millennia, tracheotomy was considered the most reliable (and most risky) method of tracheal intubation.Positive pressure: Positive pressure is a pressure within a system that is greater than the environment that surrounds that system. Consequently, if there is any leak from the positively pressured system it will egress into the surrounding environment.Mechanochemistry: Mechanochemistry or mechanical chemistry is the coupling of mechanical and chemical phenomena on a molecular scale and includes mechanical breakage, chemical behaviour of mechanically stressed solids (e.g.Infant respiratory distress syndromeLifesaving Awards: The Royal Life Saving Society UK awards several lifesaving awards indicating competence and ability.Pulse Ejector Thrust Augmentor: A Pulse Ejector Thrust Augmentor or PETA is a proprietary pulse jet engine developed by Boeing.Transpulmonary pressure: Transpulmonary pressure is the difference between the alveolar pressure and the intrapleural pressure in the lungs. During human ventilation, air flows because of pressure gradients.BradypneaSir Robert Charles Griggs: Sir Robert Charles Griggs (born 1936) is a country and jazz musician living in Hemet, CA.Dead space (physiology): In physiology, dead space is the volume of air which is inhaled that does not take part in the gas exchange, either because it (1) remains in the conducting airways, or (2) reaches alveoli that are not perfused or poorly perfused. In other words, not all the air in each breath is available for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.Surgical mask: A surgical mask, also known as a procedure mask, is intended to be worn by health professionals during surgery and during nursingProcedure mask. to catch the bacteria shed in liquid droplets and aerosols from the wearer's mouth and nose.BalloonMechanobiology: Mechanobiology is an emerging field of science at the interface of biology and engineering. It focuses on the way that physical forces and changes in cell or tissue mechanics contribute to development, physiology, and disease.Screen buffer: In computing, a screen buffer is a part of computer memory used by a computer application for the representation of the content to be shown on the computer display.Respiratory Therapy Society of Ontario: The Respiratory Therapy Society of Ontario is a non-profit organization of respiratory therapists and other healthcare professionals devoted to the promotion of Respiratory Therapy in the province of Ontario.IEC 60446: International standard IEC 60446 Basic and safety principles for man-machine interface, marking and identification - Identification of equipment terminals, conductor terminations and conductors defines basic safety principles for identifying electrical conductors by colours or numerals, for example in electricity distribution wiring. The standard has been withdrawn; the fourth edition (IEC 60446:2007) was merged in 2010 into the fifth edition of IEC 60445 along with the fourth edition, IEC 60445:2006.Moens–Korteweg equation: In biomechanics, the Moens–Korteweg equation models the relationship between wave speed or pulse wave velocity (PWV) and the incremental elastic modulus of the arterial wall or its distensibility. The equation was derived independently by Adriaan Isebree Moens and Diederik Korteweg.Suction (medicine): In medicine, devices are sometimes necessary to create suction. Suction may be used to clear the airway of blood, saliva, vomit, or other secretions so that a patient may breathe.Cable fault location: Cable fault location is the process of locating periodic faults, such as insulation faults in underground cables, and is an application of electrical measurement systems. In this process, mobile shock discharge generators are among the devices used.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingObesity hypoventilation syndromeDuctility: In materials science, ductility is a solid material's ability to deform under tensile stress; this is often characterized by the material's ability to be stretched into a wire. Malleability, a similar property, is a material's ability to deform under compressive stress; this is often characterized by the material's ability to form a thin sheet by hammering or rolling.TracheotomyBearing modulus: Bearing modulus is a [used in journal bearing] design. It is a [[Dimensionless quantity|dimensionless number.Medical device: A medical device is an instrument, apparatus, implant, in vitro reagent, or similar or related article that is used to diagnose, prevent, or treat disease or other conditions, and does not achieve its purposes through chemical action within or on the body (which would make it a drug).Summarised from the FDA's definition.Arteriovenous oxygen difference: The arteriovenous oxygen difference, or a-vO2 diff, is the difference in the oxygen content of the blood between the arterial blood and the venous blood. It is an indication of how much oxygen is removed from the blood in capillaries as the blood circulates in the body.Luis Gabriel Cano: Luis Gabriel Cano Isaza (1924-2010)El Espectador obituary (In Spanish) was the President and publisher of El Espectador who won the Golden Pen of Freedom Award in 1990 for his writings on the cocaine traffic. His brother Guillermo, who had also worked on the paper, had been assassinated by drug gangs.List of countries by carbon dioxide emissionsHumidifierDimefoxBrittlenessMatrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Gauge blockFields' disease: Fields' disease is considered to be one of the rarest known diseases in the world, with only two diagnosed cases in history. It is named after Welsh twins Catherine and Kirstie Fields.Helium-3Gas analysis: Gas analysis could refer to any of the following:Capnography: Capnography is the monitoring of the concentration or partial pressure of carbon dioxide () in the respiratory gases. Its main development has been as a monitoring tool for use during anesthesia and intensive care.Roger Gould: Roger Gould, M.D.Dispomix Technology: The Dispomix Technology is used for the homogenization of a chemical sample.Intermittent positive pressure breathing: Intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) is a respiratory therapy treatment for people who are hypoventilating. While not a preferred method due to cost, IPPB is used to expand the lungs, deliver aerosol medications, and in some circumstances ventilate the patient.Prism score of pediatric mortality: The Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) score was developed from the Physiologic Stability Index (PSI) to reduce the number of physiologic variables required for pediatric intensive-care unit (PICU) mortality risk assessment, from 34 (in the PSI) to 14, and to obtain an objective weighting of the remaining variables.Anaesthetic vaporizerLung receptor: Lung receptors sense irritation or inflammation in the bronchi and alveoli.Pulmonary volutrauma: Pulmonary volutrauma — Volutrauma is essentially damage to the lung caused by overdistention by a mechanical ventilator set for an excessively high tidal volume; resulting in a syndrome similar to adult respiratory distress syndrome. Volutrauma is separate from Pulmonary barotrauma because the mechanism of injury is excessive volume (volutrauma), instead of pressure (barotrauma).Diaphragmatic excursion: Diaphragmatic excursion is the movement of the thoracic diaphragm during breathing.Portable oxygen concentratorOpioid-induced hyperalgesia: Opioid-induced hyperalgesia or opioid-induced abnormal pain sensitivity, also called paradoxical hyperalgesia is a phenomenon associated with the long term use of opioids such as morphine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, and methadone. Over time, individuals taking opioids can develop an increasing sensitivity to noxious stimuli, even evolving a painful response to previously non-noxious stimuli (allodynia).Pasteurization: Pasteurization (American English) or pasteurisation (British English) is a process that kills bacteria in liquid food.Permissive hypercapnia: Permissive hypercapnia is hypercapnia, (i.e.Expiratory apnea: Expiratory apnea is a voluntary condition performed by a patient during a doctor's examination. By breathing out and then holding one's breath, it gets easier for the doctor to perform an auscultation of the heart with a stethoscope.Proton exchange membrane fuel cellTwist compression tester: The Twist Compression Tester ("TCT") is a hydraulically operated bench-top apparatus used to evaluate the level of friction and/or wear between two materials under lubricated or non-lubricated conditions.Extracorporeal membrane oxygenationChest wall oscillation: Chest wall oscillation is when devices are used for clearing excess mucus from lung airways (bronchi and bronchioles). It is principally used in the treatment of cystic fibrosis, but is gaining use in the treatment of other diseases, such as bronchiectasis, COPD, cerebral palsy and muscular dystrophy, in which excessive mucus can block airways due to excessive production or impaired clearance.