Exhaust systemPeak inspiratory pressure: Peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) is the highest level of pressure applied to the lungs during inhalation. In mechanical ventilation the number reflects a positive pressure in centimeters of water pressure (cmH2O).Positive pressure: Positive pressure is a pressure within a system that is greater than the environment that surrounds that system. Consequently, if there is any leak from the positively pressured system it will egress into the surrounding environment.Plateau pressure: Plateau pressure (PPLAT) is the pressure applied to small airways and alveoli during positive-pressure mechanical ventilation.Morgan, Edward G.Nasal EPAPPulse Ejector Thrust Augmentor: A Pulse Ejector Thrust Augmentor or PETA is a proprietary pulse jet engine developed by Boeing.Spontaneous breathing trial: A goal for most patients on mechanical ventilation is to be weaned from the ventilator. The weaning process is highly dependent on the patient's pathology, but the final common pathway to ventilator independence always includes at least one trial of spontaneous breathing.DimefoxCheyne–Stokes respirationMedical ventilator: A medical ventilator (or simply ventilator in context) is a machine designed to mechanically move breathable air into and out of the lungs, to provide the mechanism of breathing for a patient who is physically unable to breathe, or breathing insufficiently.List of countries by carbon dioxide emissionsVentilation/perfusion ratio: In respiratory physiology, the ventilation/perfusion ratio (or V/Q ratio) is a measurement used to assess the efficiency and adequacy of the matching of two variables:History of tracheal intubation: Tracheal intubation (usually simply referred to as intubation), an invasive medical procedure, is the placement of a flexible plastic catheter into the trachea. For millennia, tracheotomy was considered the most reliable (and most risky) method of tracheal intubation.Permissive hypercapnia: Permissive hypercapnia is hypercapnia, (i.e.Infant respiratory distress syndromeArteriovenous oxygen difference: The arteriovenous oxygen difference, or a-vO2 diff, is the difference in the oxygen content of the blood between the arterial blood and the venous blood. It is an indication of how much oxygen is removed from the blood in capillaries as the blood circulates in the body.Gas analysis: Gas analysis could refer to any of the following:Pulmonary gas pressures: The factors that determine the values for alveolar pO2 and pCO2 are:Lung receptor: Lung receptors sense irritation or inflammation in the bronchi and alveoli.Sir Robert Charles Griggs: Sir Robert Charles Griggs (born 1936) is a country and jazz musician living in Hemet, CA.BalloonHelium-3Iron Lung (band)Surgical mask: A surgical mask, also known as a procedure mask, is intended to be worn by health professionals during surgery and during nursingProcedure mask. to catch the bacteria shed in liquid droplets and aerosols from the wearer's mouth and nose.SpirometryDead space (physiology): In physiology, dead space is the volume of air which is inhaled that does not take part in the gas exchange, either because it (1) remains in the conducting airways, or (2) reaches alveoli that are not perfused or poorly perfused. In other words, not all the air in each breath is available for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.Hypoxic hypoxia: Hypoxic hypoxia is a result of insufficient oxygen available to the lungs. A blocked airway, a drowning or a reduction in partial pressure (high altitude above 10,000 feet) are examples of how lungs can be deprived of oxygen.TracheotomyBradypneaExpiratory apnea: Expiratory apnea is a voluntary condition performed by a patient during a doctor's examination. By breathing out and then holding one's breath, it gets easier for the doctor to perform an auscultation of the heart with a stethoscope.HypoventilationDiaphragmatic excursion: Diaphragmatic excursion is the movement of the thoracic diaphragm during breathing.Lying (position)Intermittent positive pressure breathing: Intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) is a respiratory therapy treatment for people who are hypoventilating. While not a preferred method due to cost, IPPB is used to expand the lungs, deliver aerosol medications, and in some circumstances ventilate the patient.Portable oxygen concentratorHyperventilation syndromeIsotopes of krypton: There are 33 known isotopes of krypton (Kr) with atomic mass numbers from 69 through 101. Naturally occurring krypton is made of six stable isotopes, two of which might theoretically be slightly radioactive, plus traces of radioisotopes that are produced by cosmic rays in the atmosphere.Flat-chested kitten syndrome: Flat-chested kitten syndrome (FCKS), is a disorder in cats, wherein kittens develop a compression of the thorax (chest/ribcage) caused by vertebral malformation. In mild cases, the underside of the chest becomes flattened (hence the name of the condition); in extreme cases the entire thorax is flattened, looking as if the kitten has been stepped on.Pulmonary volutrauma: Pulmonary volutrauma — Volutrauma is essentially damage to the lung caused by overdistention by a mechanical ventilator set for an excessively high tidal volume; resulting in a syndrome similar to adult respiratory distress syndrome. Volutrauma is separate from Pulmonary barotrauma because the mechanism of injury is excessive volume (volutrauma), instead of pressure (barotrauma).EprozinolCentral chemoreceptors: Central chemoreceptors of the central nervous system, located on the ventrolateral medullary surface in the vicinity of the exit of the 9th and 10th cranial nerves, are sensitive to the pH of their environment.General anaesthesia: General anaesthesia (or general anesthesia) is a medically induced coma and loss of protective reflexes resulting from the administration of one or more general anaesthetic agents. A variety of medications may be administered, with the overall aim of ensuring unconsciousness, amnesia, analgesia, relaxation of skeletal muscles, and loss of control of reflexes of the autonomic nervous system.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingSheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors' National Association: The Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors' National Association (SMACNA; pronounced 'Smack'-'Nah') is an international trade association with more than 4,500 contributing contractor members http://archives.informz.Respirometer: A respirometer is a device used to measure the rate of respiration of a living organism by measuring its rate of exchange of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide. They allow investigation into how factors such as age, chemicals or the effect of light affect the rate of respiration.Flash pulmonary edema: In medicine, flash pulmonary edema (oedema in British English) (FPE), is rapid onset pulmonary edema. It is most often precipitated by acute myocardial infarction or mitral regurgitation, but can be caused by aortic regurgitation, heart failure, or almost any cause of elevated left ventricular filling pressures.Chronic lung diseaseFields' disease: Fields' disease is considered to be one of the rarest known diseases in the world, with only two diagnosed cases in history. It is named after Welsh twins Catherine and Kirstie Fields.NAME (dispersion model): The NAME atmospheric pollution dispersion model Air Quality Programme and Progress, Met Office Scientific Advisory Committee (MOSAC), November 11–12, 2004Met Office "Specialised forecasts"Met Office "NWP Gazette", 3rd Quarter, 1996Met Office "NWP Gazette", December 2000 was first developed by the UK's Met Office in 1986 after the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, which demonstrated the need for a method that could predict the spread and deposition of radioactive gases or material released into the atmosphere.Tympanostomy tubeRespiratory Therapy Society of Ontario: The Respiratory Therapy Society of Ontario is a non-profit organization of respiratory therapists and other healthcare professionals devoted to the promotion of Respiratory Therapy in the province of Ontario.Transpulmonary pressure: Transpulmonary pressure is the difference between the alveolar pressure and the intrapleural pressure in the lungs. During human ventilation, air flows because of pressure gradients.Alveolar gas equation: The partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in the pulmonary alveoli is required to calculate both the alveolar-arterial gradient of oxygen and the amount of right-to-left cardiac shunt, which are both clinically useful quantities. However it is not practical to take a sample of gas from the alveoli in order to directly measure the partial pressure of oxygen.Beta encoder: A beta encoder is an analog to digital conversion (A/D) system in which a real number in the unit interval is represented by a finite representation of a sequence in base beta, with beta being a real number between 1 and 2. Beta encoders are an alternative to traditional approaches to pulse code modulation.Prism score of pediatric mortality: The Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) score was developed from the Physiologic Stability Index (PSI) to reduce the number of physiologic variables required for pediatric intensive-care unit (PICU) mortality risk assessment, from 34 (in the PSI) to 14, and to obtain an objective weighting of the remaining variables.PerfluorodecalinVentilator-associated pneumoniaCapnography: Capnography is the monitoring of the concentration or partial pressure of carbon dioxide () in the respiratory gases. Its main development has been as a monitoring tool for use during anesthesia and intensive care.Apache AvroEffect of oxygen on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: In some individuals, the effect of oxygen on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is to cause increased carbon dioxide retention, which may cause drowsiness, headaches, and in severe cases lack of respiration, which may lead to death. People with lung ailments or with central respiratory depression, who receive supplemental oxygen, require careful monitoring.Continuous positive airway pressure: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a form of positive airway pressure ventilator, which applies mild air pressure on a continuous basis to keep the airways continuously open in a patient who is unable to breathe spontaneously on his or her own. It is an alternative to positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP).Surfactant metabolism dysfunction: Surfactant metabolism dysfunction is a condition where pulmonary surfactant is insufficient for adequate respiration.Laerdal