Vasodilation: Vasodilation (or vasodilatation) refers to the widening of blood vessels. It results from relaxation of smooth muscle cells within the vessel walls, in particular in the large veins, large arteries, and smaller arterioles.Macula densaSodium nitroprussideEndothelial activation: Endothelial activation is a proinflammatory and procoagulant state of the endothelial cells lining the lumen of blood vessels. It is most characterized by an increase in interactions with white blood cells (leukocytes), and it is associated with the early states of atherosclerosis and sepsis, among others.Ethernet flow control: Ethernet flow control is a mechanism for temporarily stopping the transmission of data on Ethernet family computer networks. The first flow control mechanism, the PAUSE frame, was defined by the IEEE 802.Endothelial dysfunction: In vascular diseases, endothelial dysfunction is a systemic pathological state of the endothelium (the inner lining of blood vessels) and can be broadly defined as an imbalance between vasodilating and vasoconstricting substances produced by (or acting on) the endothelium. Normal functions of endothelial cells include mediation of coagulation, platelet adhesion, immune function and control of volume and electrolyte content of the intravascular and extravascular spaces.Blood vessel: The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system that transports blood throughout the human body. There are three major types of blood vessels: the arteries, which carry the blood away from the heart; the capillaries, which enable the actual exchange of water and chemicals between the blood and the tissues; and the veins, which carry blood from the capillaries back toward the heart.HyperaemiaNitroglycerinNitric-oxide synthase (NAD(P)H-dependent): Nitric-oxide synthase (NAD(P)H-dependent) (, nitric oxide synthetase, NO synthase) is an enzyme with system name L-arginine,NAD(P)H:oxygen oxidoreductase (nitric-oxide-forming). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionCoronary perfusion pressure: Coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) refers to the pressure gradient that drives coronary blood pressure, meaning the difference between the diastolic aortic pressure and the right atrial diastolic pressure. It is a term used mainly in research concerning cardiac arrest.Anterior interventricular branch of left coronary artery: The left anterior descending artery (also LAD, anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery, or anterior descending branch), also known as the "widow maker", is an artery of the heart.Superficial velocity: Superficial velocity (or superficial flow velocity), in engineering of multiphase flows and flows in porous media, is a hypothetical (artificial) flow velocity calculated as if the given phase or fluid were the only one flowing or present in a given cross sectional area. Other phases, particles, the skeleton of the porous medium, etc.Aortic pressure: Central aortic blood pressure (CAP or CASP) is the blood pressure at the root of aorta. Studies have shown the importance of central aortic pressure and its implications in assessing the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment with respect to cardiovascular risk factors.Adenosine receptor: The adenosine receptors (or P1 receptors) are a class of purinergic G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as endogenous ligand.Kennel clubBradykininConcentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Air displacement pipettePia mater: Pia mater ( or Entry "pia mater" in Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, retrieved 2012-07-28.), often referred to as simply the pia, is the delicate innermost layer of the meninges, the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.Protein detoxification: Protein detoxification is the process by which proteins containing methylated arginine are broken down and removed from the body.Dermal equivalent: The dermal equivalent is an in vitro model of the dermal layer of skin. It is constructed by seeding dermal fibroblasts into a collagen gel.NONOateVascular smooth muscleDistributing artery: A distributing artery (or muscular artery) is a medium-sized artery that draw blood from an elastic artery and branch into "resistance vessels" including small arteries and arterioles. In contrast to the mechanism elastic arteries use to store energy generated by the heart's contraction, distributing arteries contain layers of smooth muscle.Interbeat interval: Interbeat interval is a scientific term used in the study of the mammalian heart.Potassium channel blocker: Potassium channel blockers are agents which interfere with conduction through potassium channels.PapaverineCerebral softeningHypoxic hypoxia: Hypoxic hypoxia is a result of insufficient oxygen available to the lungs. A blocked airway, a drowning or a reduction in partial pressure (high altitude above 10,000 feet) are examples of how lungs can be deprived of oxygen.Phonomyography: Phonomyography (PMG) (also known as acoustic myography, sound myography, vibromyography, and surface mechanomyogram)"It is important to underline here that the term "surface mechanomyogram" was suggested during a CIBA Foundation Symposium in 1995 to overcome the terminological confusion caused by the habit of identifying the phenomenon with the electrical signal produced by different transducers (microphones, accelerometers, piezoelectric transducers, LVDs, etc.) instead of with its mechanical origin" is a technique to measure the force of muscle contraction by recording the low frequency sounds created during muscular activity.Potassium channel opener: A potassium channel opener is a type of drug which facilitates ion transmission through potassium channels.Homeothermy: Homeothermy is thermoregulation that maintains a stable internal body temperature regardless of external influence. This internal body temperature is often, though not necessarily, higher than the immediate environment (Greek: homoios = "similar", thermē = "heat").Isosorbide dinitrateCerebral blood flow: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is the blood supply to the brain in a given period of time.Tolias C and Sgouros S.ProstaglandinCyclic guanosine monophosphateHarlequin syndrome: Harlequin syndrome is a condition characterized by asymmetric sweating and flushing on the upper thoracic region of the chest, the neck, and the face. It is caused by sustaining an injury to the sympathetic nervous system.Sinusoid (blood vessel): A sinusoid is a small blood vessel that is a type of capillary similar to a fenestrated endothelium. Sinusoids are actually classified as a type of open pore capillary (or discontinuous) as opposed to continuous and fenestrated types.Subtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine: Antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production in the United States and around the world. They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion.Pulmonary artery banding: Pulmonary Artery Banding (PAB) was introduced by Muller and Danimann in 1951 as a surgical technique to reduce excessive pulmonary blood flow in infants suffering from congenital heart defects.Muller WH, Dammann JF.HypertensionHyponitriteMethacholineRetrograde perfusion: Retrograde perfusion is an artificial method of providing blood supply to an organ by delivering oxygenated blood through the veins. It may be performed during surgery that interrupts the normal arterial supply of blood to that organ.Hydrazine sulfateRespirometer: A respirometer is a device used to measure the rate of respiration of a living organism by measuring its rate of exchange of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide. They allow investigation into how factors such as age, chemicals or the effect of light affect the rate of respiration.Myokine: A myokine is one of several hundred cytokines or other small proteins (~5–20 kDa) and proteoglycan peptides that are produced and released by muscle cells (myocytes) in response to muscular contractions.Bente Klarlund Pedersen , Thorbjörn C.HypotensionPermissive hypercapnia: Permissive hypercapnia is hypercapnia, (i.e.Ion transport number: Ion transport number, also called the transference number, is the fraction of the total current carried in an electrolyte by a given ion. Differences in transport number arise from differences in electrical mobility.Cheek reconstruction: Cheek reconstruction the cheek constitutes the facial periphery and plays a key role in the maintenance of oral competence and mastication, the facial manifestation of human emotion, and the support of neighboring primary structures. The repair of cheek defects seeks to achieve both aesthetic and functional ends that must be carefully considered by the reconstructive surgeon.MyosmineWithdrawal reflex: The withdrawal reflex (nociceptive or flexor withdrawal reflex) is a spinal reflex intended to protect the body from damaging stimuli. It is polysynaptic, causing stimulation of sensory, association, and motor neurons.