Blood vessel: The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system that transports blood throughout the human body. There are three major types of blood vessels: the arteries, which carry the blood away from the heart; the capillaries, which enable the actual exchange of water and chemicals between the blood and the tissues; and the veins, which carry blood from the capillaries back toward the heart.Ethernet flow control: Ethernet flow control is a mechanism for temporarily stopping the transmission of data on Ethernet family computer networks. The first flow control mechanism, the PAUSE frame, was defined by the IEEE 802.Hypoxic hypoxia: Hypoxic hypoxia is a result of insufficient oxygen available to the lungs. A blocked airway, a drowning or a reduction in partial pressure (high altitude above 10,000 feet) are examples of how lungs can be deprived of oxygen.Macula densaPulmonary artery banding: Pulmonary Artery Banding (PAB) was introduced by Muller and Danimann in 1951 as a surgical technique to reduce excessive pulmonary blood flow in infants suffering from congenital heart defects.Muller WH, Dammann JF.Aortic pressure: Central aortic blood pressure (CAP or CASP) is the blood pressure at the root of aorta. Studies have shown the importance of central aortic pressure and its implications in assessing the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment with respect to cardiovascular risk factors.Vasodilation: Vasodilation (or vasodilatation) refers to the widening of blood vessels. It results from relaxation of smooth muscle cells within the vessel walls, in particular in the large veins, large arteries, and smaller arterioles.Homeothermy: Homeothermy is thermoregulation that maintains a stable internal body temperature regardless of external influence. This internal body temperature is often, though not necessarily, higher than the immediate environment (Greek: homoios = "similar", thermē = "heat").Vascular smooth muscleEndothelin receptor antagonist: A endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA) is a drug that blocks endothelin receptors.MivazerolLaboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie: The Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie (LAPLACE), Toulouse is a Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) laboratory, operated jointly by the CNRS, the University of Toulouse and the Institut National Polytechnique of Toulouse.Retrograde perfusion: Retrograde perfusion is an artificial method of providing blood supply to an organ by delivering oxygenated blood through the veins. It may be performed during surgery that interrupts the normal arterial supply of blood to that organ.UrapidilKennel clubDistributing artery: A distributing artery (or muscular artery) is a medium-sized artery that draw blood from an elastic artery and branch into "resistance vessels" including small arteries and arterioles. In contrast to the mechanism elastic arteries use to store energy generated by the heart's contraction, distributing arteries contain layers of smooth muscle.Angiotensin receptor: The angiotensin receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors with angiotensin II as their ligands. They are important in the renin-angiotensin system: they are responsible for the signal transduction of the vasoconstricting stimulus of the main effector hormone, angiotensin II.Concentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Alpha-adrenergic agonist: An adrenergic alpha-agonist (or alpha-adrenergic agonists) are a class sympathomimetic agents that selectively stimulates alpha adrenergic receptors. The alpha-adrenergic receptor has two subclasses α1 and α2.Thunderclap headacheAnterior interventricular branch of left coronary artery: The left anterior descending artery (also LAD, anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery, or anterior descending branch), also known as the "widow maker", is an artery of the heart.Meta-TyramineEndothelial activation: Endothelial activation is a proinflammatory and procoagulant state of the endothelial cells lining the lumen of blood vessels. It is most characterized by an increase in interactions with white blood cells (leukocytes), and it is associated with the early states of atherosclerosis and sepsis, among others.Ecarin clotting timeInterbeat interval: Interbeat interval is a scientific term used in the study of the mammalian heart.PrazosinNitric-oxide synthase (NAD(P)H-dependent): Nitric-oxide synthase (NAD(P)H-dependent) (, nitric oxide synthetase, NO synthase) is an enzyme with system name L-arginine,NAD(P)H:oxygen oxidoreductase (nitric-oxide-forming). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionKidney: The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates. They remove excess organic molecules from the blood, and it is by this action that their best-known function is performed: the removal of waste products of metabolism.Pulmonary Hypertension Association: The Pulmonary Hypertension Association (PHA) is a 501(c) organization non-profit support, education, advocacy and awareness association for pulmonary hypertension (PH). It provides information to the public about the illness and acts as a support group for those with the disease, providing medical provider location services and emotional support for those suffering from the illness.Arteriovenous oxygen difference: The arteriovenous oxygen difference, or a-vO2 diff, is the difference in the oxygen content of the blood between the arterial blood and the venous blood. It is an indication of how much oxygen is removed from the blood in capillaries as the blood circulates in the body.Sodium nitroprussideCardiac function curve: A cardiac function curve is a graph showing the relationship between right atrial pressure (x-axis) and cardiac output (y-axis).Sinusoid (blood vessel): A sinusoid is a small blood vessel that is a type of capillary similar to a fenestrated endothelium. Sinusoids are actually classified as a type of open pore capillary (or discontinuous) as opposed to continuous and fenestrated types.Air displacement pipetteSuperficial velocity: Superficial velocity (or superficial flow velocity), in engineering of multiphase flows and flows in porous media, is a hypothetical (artificial) flow velocity calculated as if the given phase or fluid were the only one flowing or present in a given cross sectional area. Other phases, particles, the skeleton of the porous medium, etc.Lung receptor: Lung receptors sense irritation or inflammation in the bronchi and alveoli.Diazepine: Diazepine is a seven-membered heterocyclic compound with two nitrogen atoms (e.g.Cold shock response: Cold shock response is the physiological response of organisms to sudden cold, especially cold water.Rho-associated protein kinase: Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) is a kinase belonging to the AGC (PKA/ PKG/PKC) family of serine-threonine kinases. It is involved mainly in regulating the shape and movement of cells by acting on the cytoskeleton.BIIE-0246PropranololDermal equivalent: The dermal equivalent is an in vitro model of the dermal layer of skin. It is constructed by seeding dermal fibroblasts into a collagen gel.Blood substitute: A blood substitute (also called artificial blood or blood surrogates) is a substance used to mimic and fulfill some functions of biological blood. It aims to provide an alternative to blood transfusion, which is transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into another.Coronary perfusion pressure: Coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) refers to the pressure gradient that drives coronary blood pressure, meaning the difference between the diastolic aortic pressure and the right atrial diastolic pressure. It is a term used mainly in research concerning cardiac arrest.Phonomyography: Phonomyography (PMG) (also known as acoustic myography, sound myography, vibromyography, and surface mechanomyogram)"It is important to underline here that the term "surface mechanomyogram" was suggested during a CIBA Foundation Symposium in 1995 to overcome the terminological confusion caused by the habit of identifying the phenomenon with the electrical signal produced by different transducers (microphones, accelerometers, piezoelectric transducers, LVDs, etc.) instead of with its mechanical origin" is a technique to measure the force of muscle contraction by recording the low frequency sounds created during muscular activity.Cerebral softeningSerotonergic: Serotonergic (, ) or serotoninergic (, ) means "pertaining to or affecting serotonin". Serotonin is a neurotransmitter.Muscle contraction: Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers. In physiology, muscle contraction does not mean muscle shortening because muscle tension can be produced without changes in muscle length such as holding a heavy book or a dumbbell at the same position.Cortical stimulation mapping: Cortical stimulation mapping (often shortened to CSM) is a type of electrocorticography that involves a physically invasive procedure and aims to localize the function of specific brain regions through direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex. It remains one of the earliest methods of analyzing the brain and has allowed researchers to study the relationship between cortical structure and systemic function.Withdrawal reflex: The withdrawal reflex (nociceptive or flexor withdrawal reflex) is a spinal reflex intended to protect the body from damaging stimuli. It is polysynaptic, causing stimulation of sensory, association, and motor neurons.Subtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine: Antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production in the United States and around the world. They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion.Phenoxybenzamine