VaricocelePampiniform venous plexus: The pampiniform plexus is a network of many small veins found in the human male spermatic cord. It is formed by the union of multiple spermatic veins from the back of the testis and tributaries from the epididymis.Male infertilitySperm: Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed"). In the types of sexual reproduction known as anisogamy and its subtype oogamy, there is a marked difference in the size of the gametes with the smaller one being termed the "male" or sperm cell.Scrotal ligament: The scrotal ligament is actually the remnant of gubernaculum in a fetus. This ligament secures the testis to the most inferior portion of the scrotum, tethering it in place and limiting the degree to which the testis can move within the scrotum.Chen Zhongwei: Chen Zhongwei (Chinese:陈中伟, 1929–2004) was an expert of orthopedic surgery and microsurgery, one of the pioneers of the process of reattaching severed limbs.ThrombosisHyperactivation: Hyperactivation is a type of sperm motility. Hyperactivated sperm motility is characterised by a high amplitude, asymmetrical beating pattern of the sperm tail (flagellum).Blood–testis barrier: The blood–testis barrier is a physical barrier between the blood vessels and the seminiferous tubules of the animal testes. The name "blood-testis barrier" is misleading in that it is not a blood-organ barrier in a strict sense, but is formed between Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubule and as such isolates the further developed stages of germ cells from the blood.Orchialgia: Orchialgia is long-term pain of the testes. It is considered chronic if it has persisted for more than 3 months.Semen quality: Semen quality is a measure of the ability of semen to accomplish fertilization. Thus, it is a measure of fertility in a man.FNA Mapping: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology has been used to examine pathological human tissue from various organs for over 100 years.,Posner C.SclerotherapySuperficial vein: Superficial vein is a vein that is close to the surface of the body. This differs from deep veins that are far from the surface.Spermiogenesis: Spermiogenesis is the final stage of spermatogenesis, which sees the maturation of spermatids into mature, motile spermatozoa. The spermatid is more or less circular cell containing a nucleus, Golgi apparatus, centriole and mitochondria.Impedance phlebography