Bladder augmentation: Bladder augmentation is a surgical alteration of the urinary bladder. It involves removing strips of tissue from the intestinal tract and adding this to the tissue of the bladder.Autoschizis: "Autoschizis" is a term derived from the Greek αὐτο- auto-, meaning "self", and σχίζειν skhizein, "to split". It was introduced in 1998 to describe a novel form of cancer cell death characterized by a reduction in cell size that occurs due to the loss of cytoplasm through self-excision (the cell splits open) without the loss of cell organelles, morphologic degradation of the cells nucleus and nucleolus without the formation of apoptotic bodies and destruction of the cell membrane.Urinary bladder disease: -, - |Bladder stonePapillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential: In urologic pathology, PUNLMP, short for papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential, is an exophytic (outward growing), (microscopically) nipple-shaped (or papillary) pre-malignant growth of the lining of the upper genitourinary tract (the urothelium), which includes the renal pelvis, ureters, urinary bladder and part of the urethra.Transitional cell carcinoma: -8130Overactive bladderCystitis glandularis: Cystitis glandularis is a term describing a metaplastic transformation of mucosal cells lining the urinary bladder. The main importance is in histopathology, distinguishing the metaplastic change from urothelial cell carcinoma.Transurethral incision of the prostateUpper motor neuron lesion: An upper motor neuron lesion (also known as pyramidal insufficiency) is a lesion of the neural pathway above the anterior horn cell of the spinal cord or motor nuclei of the cranial nerves. This is in contrast to a lower motor neuron lesion, which affects nerve fibers traveling from the anterior horn of the spinal cord or the cranial motor nuclei to the relevant muscle(s).Urination: Urination is the release of urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the urinary meatus outside of the body. It is also known medically as micturition, voiding, uresis, or, rarely, emiction, and known colloquially by various names including tinkling, peeing, weeing, and pissing.Pathogenic Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli ( Anglicized to ; commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).Hexvix: Hexvix is an optical imaging agent developed by the Norwegian pharmaceutical company Photocure ASA. Hexvix is designed to enhance detection of bladder cancer, in particular carcinoma in situ (CIS), it reveals lesions that may not be seen with standard white light cystoscopy.Urinary catheterizationUrinary retentionCystectomyUrodynamic testingPope Marinus II: Pope Marinus II (or Martin III; died May 946), was Pope from 30 October 942 to his death in 946.Roc Ordman: Alfred B. "Roc" Ordman (born October 25, 1948) is an American biochemist and researcher into aging, life extension and the effects of free radicals on the body.Calculus (dental): In dentistry, calculus or tartar is a form of hardened dental plaque. It is caused by precipitation of minerals from saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in plaque on the teeth.Thin basement membrane diseaseMuscle contraction: Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers. In physiology, muscle contraction does not mean muscle shortening because muscle tension can be produced without changes in muscle length such as holding a heavy book or a dumbbell at the same position.Pneumaturia: Pneumaturia is the passage of gas or "air" in urine. This may be seen or described as "bubbles in the urine".Urinary diversion: Urinary diversion is any one of several surgical procedures to reroute urine flow from its normal pathway. It may be necessary for diseased or defective ureters, bladder or urethra, either temporarily or permanently.Urethral soundingBladder exstrophyNational Association For Continence: National Association For Continence (NAFC) is a national, private, non-profit organization dedicated to improving the quality of life of people with incontinence, voiding dysfunction, and related pelvic floor disorders. NAFC's purpose is to be the leading source for public education and advocacy about the causes, prevention, diagnosis, treatments, and management alternatives for incontinence.Cacodyl oxideUrethrostomy: Urethrostomy is a surgical procedure that creates a permanent opening in the urethra, commonly to remove obstructions to urine flow. The procedure is most often performed in male cats, where the opening is made in the perineum.Glomerulation: Glomerulation refers to bladder hemorrhages which are thought to be associated with some types of interstitial cystitis (IC).Carcinogen: A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that is an agent directly involved in causing cancer. This may be due to the ability to damage the genome or to the disruption of cellular metabolic processes.Mitrofanoff principle: In urology, the Mitrofanoff principle is the creation of a passageway for urine or enema fluid that, by its (surgical) construction, has a valve mechanism to allow continence.Muscarinic antagonist: A muscarinic receptor antagonist (MRA) is a type of anticholinergic agent that blocks the activity of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Acetylcholine (often abbreviated ACh) is a neurotransmitter, whose receptor is a protein found in synapses and other cell membranes.Ureteroureterostomy: Ureteroureterostomy ( "urétero-uréte-róstomy") is end-to-end connection (anastomosis) of the two portions of a transected ureter; also called ureteroureteral anastomosis and van Hook operation (after Weller van Hook, surgeon).http://www.Urologic disease: Urologic disease can involve congenital or acquired dysfunction of the urinary system.Laryngeal papillomatosisUrinalysisVasopressin analogue: Vasopressin analogues are chemicals similar in function but not necessarily similar in structure to vasopressin (ADH), such as desmopressin.Stratified squamous epithelium: A stratified squamous epithelium consists of squamous (flattened) epithelial cells arranged in layers upon a basal membrane. Only one layer is in contact with the basement membrane; the other layers adhere to one another to maintain structural integrity.Kidney: The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates. They remove excess organic molecules from the blood, and it is by this action that their best-known function is performed: the removal of waste products of metabolism.A. N. Hartley: Annie Norah Hartley (1902 – 1994), usually known simply as Norah Hartley, was a dog breeder and the first female board member of the Kennel Club.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingCortical stimulation mapping: Cortical stimulation mapping (often shortened to CSM) is a type of electrocorticography that involves a physically invasive procedure and aims to localize the function of specific brain regions through direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex. It remains one of the earliest methods of analyzing the brain and has allowed researchers to study the relationship between cortical structure and systemic function.Hyperplasia: Hyperplasia (from ancient Greek ὑπέρ huper, "over" + πλάσις plasis, "formation"), or hypergenesis, is an increase in the amount of organic tissue that results from cell proliferation. It may lead to the gross enlargement of an organ and the term is sometimes confused with benign neoplasia or benign tumor.Concentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.FlavoxateHemiphractidae: The Hemiphractidae are a family of frogs from South and Central America. Previously, this group had been classified as a subfamily (Hemiphractinae) under family Hylidae.Direct Blue 1CA19-9: CA 19-9 (carbohydrate antigen 19-9, also called cancer antigen 19-9 or sialylated Lewis (a) antigen) is a tumor marker that is used primarily in the management of pancreatic cancer. CA 19-9 is an antigen defined by monoclonal antibody binding to CA 19-9, the tumor surface marker Sialyl-Lewis A.Gas pyelogram: A Gas pyelogram is a pyelogram in which the kidneys, renal pelvis and ureters are filled with gas, and have a radiolucent appearance. This gas is produced by some gas producing micro organisms which infect most upper parts of urinary system.HydronephrosisAllantois: Allantois (; plural allantoides or allantoises) is a sac-like structure that forms part of a developing amniote's conceptus (which consists of all embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues). It helps the embryo exchange gases and handle liquid waste.Fractional sodium excretion: The fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) is the percentage of the sodium filtered by the kidney which is excreted in the urine. It is measured in terms of plasma and urine sodium, rather than by the interpretation of urinary sodium concentration alone, as urinary sodium concentrations can vary with water reabsorption.Department of Urology, University of Virginia: {{Infobox universityNitrosamine: Nitrosamines are chemical compounds of the chemical structure R1N(-R2)-N=O, that is, a nitroso group bonded to an amine. Most nitrosamines are carcinogenic.Atelopus onorei: Atelopus onorei is a small species of bright yellow and green toad in the Bufonidae family. It is endemic to Ecuador.Anaplastic carcinoma: Anaplastic carcinoma is a general term for a malignant neoplasm arising from the uncontrolled proliferation of transformed cells of epithelial origin, or showing some epithelial characteristics, but that reveal no cytological or architectural features of associated with more differentiated tumors, such as the glandular formation or special cellular junctions that typical of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, respectively.Cancer biomarkers: A cancer biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker may be a molecule secreted by a tumor or a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer.PD-0298029Kennel clubClinical Genitourinary Cancer: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by Elsevier, and previously by CIG Media Group (Cancer Information Group). The journal publishes articles on detection, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of genitourinary cancers.DihydrocapsaicinVasotocinWithdrawal reflex: The withdrawal reflex (nociceptive or flexor withdrawal reflex) is a spinal reflex intended to protect the body from damaging stimuli. It is polysynaptic, causing stimulation of sensory, association, and motor neurons.Urolithiasis