Tryptophan operon leaderTryptophan synthase: Tryptophan synthase or tryptophan synthetase is an enzyme that catalyzes the final two steps in the biosynthesis of tryptophan. It is commonly found in Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Protista, Fungi,, and Plantae.OSM-9: OSM-9 also known as OSMotic avoidance abnormal family member 9 is a protein which in the nematode worm C. elegans is encoded by the osm-9 gene.Kynurenine pathway: The kynurenine pathway is a metabolic pathway leading to the production of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) from the degradation of the essential amino acid tryptophan. Disruption in the pathway is associated with certain genetic disorders.Spectrofluorometer: A spectrofluorometer is an instrument which takes advantage of fluorescent properties of some compounds in order to provide information regarding their concentration and chemical environment in a sample. A certain excitation wavelength is selected, and the emission is observed either at a single wavelength, or a scan is performed to record the intensity versus wavelength, also called an emission spectra.Glutamine amidotransferase: In molecular biology, glutamine amidotransferases (GATase) are enzymes which catalyse the removal of the ammonia group from a glutamine molecule and its subsequent transfer to a specific substrate, thus creating a new carbon-nitrogen group on the substrate. This activity is found in a range of biosynthetic enzymes, including glutamine amidotransferase, anthranilate synthase component II, p-aminobenzoate, and glutamine-dependent carbamoyl-transferase (CPSase).N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acidAcrylamideProteinogenic amino acid: Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are precursors to proteins, and are incorporated into proteins cotranslationally — that is, during translation. There are 23 proteinogenic amino acids in prokaryotes (including N-Formylmethionine, mainly used to initiate protein synthesis and often removed afterward), but only 21 are encoded by the nuclear genes of eukaryotes.Serotonergic: Serotonergic (, ) or serotoninergic (, ) means "pertaining to or affecting serotonin". Serotonin is a neurotransmitter.Database of protein conformational diversity: The Database of protein conformational diversity (PCDB) is a database of diversity of protein tertiary structures within protein domains as determined by X-ray crystallography. Proteins are inherently flexible and this database collects information on this subject for use in molecular research.X-ray magnetic circular dichroismProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Phenylalanine N-monooxygenase: Phenylalanine N-monooxygenase (, phenylalanine N-hydroxylase, CYP79A2) is an enzyme with system name L-phenylalanine,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (N-hydroxylating). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionList of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Coles PhillipsDNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Reaction coordinateAutofluorescenceIndoleProximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.LaropiprantKendomycinLower critical solution temperature: The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) or lower consolute temperature is the critical temperature below which the components of a mixture are miscible for all compositions. The word lower indicates that the LCST is a lower bound to a temperature interval of partial miscibility, or miscibility for certain compositions only.Quinolinate synthase: Quinolinate synthase (, NadA, QS, quinolinate synthetase) is an enzyme with system name glycerone phosphate:iminosuccinate alkyltransferase (cyclizing). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionOperon: In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of genomic DNA containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single promoter. The genes are transcribed together into an mRNA strand and either translated together in the cytoplasm, or undergo trans-splicing to create monocistronic mRNAs that are translated separately, i.Denaturation midpoint: Assuming two-state protein folding, denaturation midpoint is defined as that temperature (Tm) or denaturant concentration (Cm) at which both the folded and unfolded states are equally populated at equilibrium. Tm is often determined using a thermal shift assay.SkatoleNon-receptor tyrosine kinase: Non-receptor tyrosine kinases (nRTKs) are cytoplasmic enzymes that are responsible for catalysing the transfer of a phosphate group from a nucleoside triphosphate donor, such as ATP, to tyrosine residues in proteins. Non-receptor tyrosine kinases are a subgroup of protein family tyrosine kinases, enzymes that can transfer the phosphate group from ATP to a tyrosine residue of a protein (phosphorylation).Transmembrane domain: Transmembrane segment usually denotes a single transmembrane alpha helix of a transmembrane protein, also known as an integral protein.http://www.PellagraAlkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Phosphoserine transaminase: Phosphoserine transaminase (, PSAT, phosphoserine aminotransferase, 3-phosphoserine aminotransferase, hydroxypyruvic phosphate-glutamic transaminase, L-phosphoserine aminotransferase, phosphohydroxypyruvate transaminase, phosphohydroxypyruvic-glutamic transaminase, 3-O-phospho-L-serine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, SerC, PdxC, 3PHP transaminase) is an enzyme with system name O-phospho-L-serine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionKynurenic acidFerric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Heterodimeric amino-acid transporter: Heterodimeric amino-acid transporters are a family of transport proteins that facilitate the transport of certain amino acids across cell membranes. Each transporter comprises a two-protein, a light and heavy, subunit.Ethyl groupFERM domain: In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.Knotted protein: Knotted proteins are proteins whose backbones entangle themselves in a knot. One can imagine pulling a protein chain from both termini, as though pulling a string from both ends.Spectrophotometry: In chemistry, spectrophotometry is the quantitative measurement of the reflection or transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength.Allen, D.Table of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.HistidineLiver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GISpin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame: Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame is the mechanism by which Mxy, the transverse component of the magnetization vector, exponentially decays towards its equilibrium value of zero, under the influence of a radio frequency (RF) field in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is characterized by the spin–lattice relaxation time constant in the rotating frame, T1ρ.