PaleopolyploidyChoke (firearms): In firearms, a choke is a tapered constriction of a shotgun barrel's bore at the muzzle end. Chokes are almost always used with modern hunting and target shotguns, to improve performance.Tomato seed oil: Tomato seed oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of tomatoes.Leaf rust (barley): Leaf rust is a fungal disease of barley caused by Puccinia hordei. It is also known as brown rust and it is the most important rust disease on barley.Gluten exorphin: Gluten exorphins are a group of opioid peptides formed during digestion of the gluten protein. It has been hypothesized that people with autism and schizophrenia have abnormal leakage from the gut of these compounds, which then pass into the brain and disrupt brain functionAutism and Schizophrenia: Intestinal Disorders, Cade, et al.Squamosa promoter binding protein: The SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like (SBP or SPL) family of transcription factors are defined by a plant-specific DNA-binding domain. The founding member of the family was identified based on its specific in vitro binding to the promoter of the snapdragon SQUAMOSA gene.General Mills monster-themed breakfast cerealsCanna Leaf Roller: Cannas are largely free of pests, but in the USA plants sometimes fall victim the Canna Leaf Roller, which can actually be two different insects. Larva of the Brazilian skipper butterfly (Calpodes ethlius), also known as the Larger Canna Leaf Roller, cut the leaves and roll them over to live inside while pupating and eating the leaf.Paddock: A paddock has two primary meanings in different parts of the English-speaking world. In Canada, the USA and UK, a paddock is a small enclosure used to keep horses.Crustless bread: Crustless bread is bread without crusts. Panko is made from such a bread, which is produced by passing an electric current through the dough.Brachypodium sylvaticum: Brachypodium sylvaticum, commonly known as false brome, slender false brome or wood false brome, is a perennial grass native to Europe, Asia and Africa. It has a broad native range stretching from North Africa to Eurasia.Endodermis: The endodermis is the central, innermost layer of cortex in some land plants. It is made of compact living cells surrounded by an outer ring of endodermal cells that are impregnated with hydrophobic substances (Casparian Strip) to restrict apoplastic flow of water to the inside.Organic hydroponics: Organic hydroponics is a hydroponics culture system which is managed based on organic agriculture concepts.Coles PhillipsPlant perception (physiology): Plant perception is the ability of plants to sense and respond to the environment to adjust their morphology, physiology and phenotype accordingly. Other disciplines such as plant physiology, ecology and molecular biology are used to assess this ability.Fungicide use in the United States: A more accurate title for this page would be "Common plant pathogens to food crops in the United States".Chromosome regionsPith: 250px|right|thumb|[[Elderberry shoot cut longitudinally to show the broad, solid pith (rough-textured, white) inside the wood (smooth, yellow-tinged). Scale in mm.Unifine mill: A Unifine mill is a single one-pass impact milling system which produces ultrafine-milled whole-grain wheat flour that requires no grain pre-treatment and no screening of the flour. Like the grist or stone mills that had dominated the flour industry for centuries, the bran, germ, and endosperm elements of grain are processed into a nutritious whole wheat flour in one step.Weedy rice: Weedy rice, also known as red rice, is a variety of rice (Oryza) that produces far fewer grains per plant than cultivated rice and is therefore considered a pest. The name "weedy rice" is used for all types and variations of rice which show some characteristic features of cultivated rice and grow as weeds in commercial rice fields.Chance seedling: A chance seedling is a plant that is the product of unintentional breeding. It may be a genetically unique individual with desirable characteristics that is then intentionally bred.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Gliadin: Gliadin is a class of proteins present in wheat and several other cereals within the grass genus Triticum. Gliadins, which are a component of gluten, are essential for giving bread the ability to rise properly during baking.Puccinia striiformis var. striiformis: Puccinia striiformis var. striiformis is a plant pathogen.Hardening (botany): Hardening in botany is the process by which an individual plant becomes tolerant to the effects of freezing during a period of weeks to months. It is a three-stage process.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Flower box: __NOTOC__Sequence clustering: In bioinformatics, sequence clustering algorithms attempt to group biological sequences that are somehow related. The sequences can be either of genomic, "transcriptomic" (ESTs) or protein origin.Affinity electrophoresis: Affinity electrophoresis is a general name for many analytical methods used in biochemistry and biotechnology. Both qualitative and quantitative information may be obtained through affinity electrophoresis.Prolamin: Prolamins are a group of plant storage proteins having a high proline content and found in the seeds of cereal grains: wheat (gliadin), barley (hordein), rye (secalin), corn (zein), sorghum (kafirin) and as a minor protein, avenin in oats. They are characterised by a high glutamine and proline content and are generally soluble only in strong alcohol solutions.Aluminium toxicity in dialysis patients: Aluminium toxicity is a problem for patients on haemodialysis. The dialysis process does not efficiently remove excess aluminium from the body, so it may build up over time.Xylanase: Xylanase (, endo-(1->4)-beta-xylan 4-xylanohydrolase, endo-1,4-xylanase, endo-1,4-beta-xylanase, beta-1,4-xylanase, endo-1,4-beta-D-xylanase, 1,4-beta-xylan xylanohydrolase, beta-xylanase, beta-1,4-xylan xylanohydrolase, beta-D-xylanase) is the name given to a class of enzymes which degrade the linear polysaccharide beta-1,4-xylan into xylose, thus breaking down hemicellulose, one of the major components of plant cell walls.Hybrid inviability: Hybrid inviability is a post-zygotic barrier, which reduces a hybrid's capacity to mature into a healthy, fit adult.Hybrid inviability.Cold shock response: Cold shock response is the physiological response of organisms to sudden cold, especially cold water.CS-BLASTVicia cracca: Vicia cracca (tufted vetch, cow vetch, bird vetch, blue vetch, boreal vetch), is a species of vetch native to Europe and Asia. It occurs on other continents as an introduced species, including North America, where it is a common weed.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Lasiodiplodia: Lasiodiplodia is a genus of fungi in the family Botryosphaeriaceae. There are 21 species.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.John o' Groats: John o' Groats (Gaelic: Taigh Iain Ghròt) is a village in the Canisby parish of Caithness, in the far north of Scotland. John o' Groats lies on Britain's northeastern tip, and is popular with tourists as one end of the longest distance between two inhabited British points, with Land's End in Cornwall lying 876 miles to the southwest.Coleophora vestianella: Coleophora vestianella is a moth of the Coleophoridae family. It is found from Europe to Asia Minor, Iran, Afghanistan, China, the Korean Peninsula and Japan.Cytoplasmic male sterility: Cytoplasmic male sterility is total or partial male sterility in plants as the result of specific nuclear and mitochondrial interactions. Male sterility is the failure of plants to produce functional anthers, pollen, or male gametes.Glycogen-branching enzyme deficiency: Glycogen-branching enzyme deficiency (GBED) is an inheritable glycogen storage disease affecting American Quarter Horses and American Paint Horses. It leads to abortion, stillbirths, or early death of affected animals.Acclimatization: Acclimatization (UK also acclimatisation; US also acclimation) is the process in which an individual organism adjusts to a gradual change in its environment (such as a change in temperature, humidity, photoperiod, or pH), allowing it to maintain performance across a range of environmental conditions. Acclimation occurs in a short period of time (days to weeks), and within the organism's lifetime (compare to adaptation).Nitrogen deficiencyImbibition: Imbibition is a special type of diffusion when water is absorbed by solids-colloids-causing them to enormously increase in volume. The classical examples of imbibition are absorption of water by seeds and dry wood.Leguminous lectin family: In molecular biology, the leguminous lectin family is a family of lectin proteins.Fusarium ear blight: 180px|thumb|right|Symptom on wheat caused by F. graminearum (right:inoculated, left:non-inoculated)Starch synthase (maltosyl-transferring): Starch synthase (maltosyl-transferring) (, alpha1,4-glucan:maltose-1-P maltosyltransferase, GMPMT) is an enzyme with system name alpha-maltose 1-phosphate:(1->4)-alpha-D-glucan 4-alpha-D-maltosyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionGenetic variation: right|thumbBreeding for drought stress toleranceLogarithmic form: In contexts including complex manifolds and algebraic geometry, a logarithmic differential form is a meromorphic differential form with poles of a certain kind.Southern corn leaf blight: Southern corn leaf blight (SCLB) is a fungal disease of maize caused by the plant pathogen Bipolaris maydis (also known as Cochliobolus heterostrophus in its teleomorph state).Phaseic acidLigation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Glucuronoxylan: Glucuronoxylans are the primary components of hemicellulose as found in hardwood trees, for example birch.http://www.Starch gelatinization: Starch gelatinization is a process of breaking down the intermolecular bonds of starch molecules in the presence of water and heat, allowing the hydrogen bonding sites (the hydroxyl hydrogen and oxygen) to engage more water. This irreversibly dissolves the starch granule in water.Molecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Plant breeders' rights: Plant breeders' rights (PBR), also known as plant variety rights (PVR), are rights granted to the breeder of a new variety of plant that give the breeder exclusive control over the propagating material (including seed, cuttings, divisions, tissue culture) and harvested material (cut flowers, fruit, foliage) of a new variety for a number of years.Sweet sorghumOutline of water: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to water:Organic fertilizer: Organic fertilizers are fertilizers derived from animal matter, human excreta or vegetable matter. (e.Infinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.Index of soil-related articles: This is an index of articles relating to soil.Gibberellin: Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones that regulate growth and influence various developmental processes, including stem elongation, germination, dormancy, flowering, sex expression, enzyme induction, and leaf and fruit senescence. Gibberellins: A Short History, from http://www.LeucoplastParaHox: The ParaHox gene cluster is an array of homeobox genes (involved in morphogenesis, the regulation of patterns of anatomical development) from the Gsx, Xlox (Pdx) and Cdx gene families.Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can be later released to fuel the organisms' activities. This chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules, such as sugars, which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water – hence the name photosynthesis, from the Greek [phōs, "light", and σύνθεσις], synthesis, "putting together".Jacalin: Jacalin is a plant based lectin, but not a legume lectin, found in jackfruit. It has been studied for capturing O-glycoproteins such as mucins and IgA1, for potential applications in human immunology.