Reverse triiodothyronineThyroid hormone: The thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and its prohormone, thyroxine (T4), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland that are primarily responsible for regulation of metabolism. T3 and T4 are partially composed of iodine (see molecular model).HypothyroidismHyperthyroidismThyrotropic cellFollicular cellPropylthiouracilIodothyronine deiodinase: Iodothyronine deiodinases ( and ) are a subfamily of deiodinase enzymes important in the activation and deactivation of thyroid hormones. Thyroxine (T4), the precursor of 3,5,3’-triiodothyronine (T3) is transformed into T3 by deiodinase activity.Hormone receptor: A hormone receptor is a molecule that can bind to a specific hormone. Receptors for peptide hormones tend to be found on the plasma membrane of cells, whereas receptors for lipid-soluble hormones are usually found within the cytoplasm.ThyroidectomyTRH stimulation test: Prior to the availability of sensitive TSH assays, thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)Euthyroid sick syndromeIodine deficiencyLiver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIIopanoic acidMyxedemaDialysis (biochemistry): In biochemistry, dialysis is the process of separating molecules in solution by the difference in their rates of diffusion through a semipermeable membrane, such as dialysis tubing.Thyroglobulin: Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a 660 kDa, dimeric protein produced by the follicular cells of the thyroid and used entirely within the thyroid gland. Thyroglobulin protein accounts for approximately half of the protein content of the thyroid gland.Symptoms and signs of Graves' disease: Virtually all the symptoms and signs of Graves' disease result from the direct and indirect effects of hyperthyroidism, with exceptions being Graves' ophthalmopathy, goitre and pretibial myxedema (which are caused by the autoimmune processes of Graves' disease). These clinical manifestations are dramatic and involve virtually every system in the body.RO5166017: RO-5166017 is a drug developed by Hoffmann-La Roche which acts as a potent and selective agonist for the trace amine-associated receptor 1, with no significant activity at other targets. This is important for the study of the TAAR1 receptor, as while numerous other compounds are known which act as TAAR1 agonists, such as methamphetamine, MDMA and 3-iodothyronamine, all previously known TAAR1 agonists are either weak and rapidly metabolized (endogenous ligands), or have strong pharmacological activity at other targets (amphetamines, thyronamines), making it very difficult to assess which effects are due to TAAR1 activation.Somatotropic cellGlycerol phosphate shuttle: 380px|thumb|Glycerol Phosphate ShuttleBioline Reagents: Bioline Reagents is a primary manufacturer and developerBioline: The PCR Company | Company Profile of a wide range of specialised molecular biology products for the life science industry and research markets. It manufactures reagents including ultra-pure nucleotides, DNA polymerases and mixes, DNA markers, competent cells, products for RNA analysis and other general reagents for molecular biology.Hormone: A hormone (from Greek , "impetus") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour. Hormones have diverse chemical structures, mainly of 3 classes: eicosanoids, steroids, and amino acid derivatives (amines, peptides, and proteins).Alcohol and cortisol: Recent research has looked into the effects of alcohol on the amount of cortisol that is produced in the human body. Continuous consumption of alcohol over an extended period of time has been shown to raise cortisol levels in the body.TriiodidePulmonary talcosisGlyceroneogenesis: Glyceroneogenesis is a metabolic pathway which synthesizes glycerol 3-phosphate or triglyceride from precursors other than glucose.GoitreMature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Prolactin cellInsulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.AmiodaroneBurst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Immunoassay: An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a macromolecule in a solution through the use of an antibody or immunoglobulin. The macromolecule detected by the immunoassay is often referred to as an "analyte" and is in many cases a protein.Transthyretin: Transthyretin (TTR) is a serum and cerebrospinal fluid carrier of the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4) and retinol-binding protein bound to retinol. This is how transthyretin gained its name, transports thyroxine and retinol.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingErgotamineCongenital hypothyroidismSerum-separating tube: Serum-separating tubes, also known as serum separator tubes or SSTs, are used in medical clinical chemistry tests requiring blood serum.Enzyme inducer: Principles of Fermentation TechnologyCompensatory growth (organism): Compensatory growth, known as catch-up growth and compensatory gain, is an accelerated growth of an organism following a period of slowed development, particularly as a result of nutrient deprivation. The growth may be with respect to weight or length (or height in humans).Selenium in biologyGlucagon rescueEukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.
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