Human tooth: The human teeth function in mechanically breaking down items of food by cutting and crushing them in preparation for swallowing and digestion. There are four different types of teeth, namely incisors, canines, molars and premolars.Tooth loss: Tooth loss is a process in which one or more teeth come loose and fall out. Tooth loss is normal for deciduous teeth (baby teeth), when they are replaced by a person's adult teeth.Neonatal line: The neonatal line is a particular band of incremental growth lines seen in histologic sections of a deciduous tooth. It belongs to a series of a growth lines in tooth enamel known as the Striae of Retzius.Talon cuspApical delta: Apical delta refers to the branching pattern of small accessory canals and minor foramina seen at the tip or apex of some tooth roots.Intraosseous eruption: Intraosseous eruption involves the formation of root of a tooth which allows the tooth to being eruption from the bone. This phase precedes the Supraosseous Eruption phase which consists of Infragingival eruption and Supragingival Eruption.HyperdontiaTaurodontismHorse teethIron metallic discoloration: Iron metallic discoloration occurred more frequently in the past when soluble iron compounds were used in the treatment of allergic contact and other dermatitis, and in eroded areas iron was sometimes deposited in the skin, like a tattoo .James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).OverjetAbfraction: Abfraction is a theoretical concept explaining a loss of tooth structure not caused by tooth decay (non-carious cervical lesions). It is suggested that these lesions are caused by forces placed on the teeth during biting, eating, chewing and grinding; the enamel, especially at the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), undergoes large amounts of stress, causing micro fractures and tooth tissue loss.Enamel spindles: Enamel spindles are "short, linear defects, found at the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) and extend into the enamel, often being more prevalent at the cusp tips."Histology Course Notes: "Mature Enamel", New Jersey Dental School, 2003-2004, page 2.ConcrescencePulp (tooth): The dental pulp is the part in the center of a tooth made up of living connective tissue and cells called odontoblasts. The dental pulp is a part of the dentin–pulp complex (endodontium).Gomphosis: Gomphosis, also known as the dental-alveolar joint, is a joint that binds the teeth to bony sockets (dental alveoli) in the maxillary bone and mandible. The fibrous connection between a tooth and its socket is a periodontal ligament.Dental avulsion: Dental avulsion is the complete displacement of a tooth from its socket in alveolar bone owing to trauma.Dentin sialophosphoprotein (protein): Dentin sialophosphoprotein is the only protein produced uniquely by odontoblasts, the cells that produce tooth dentin. It is a non-collagenous SIBLING protein that is later cleaved into three functional proteins: dentin phosphoprotein (also known as phosphophoryn), taken from the C-terminal end, dentin sialoprotein from the N-terminal end, and dentin glycoprotein from the middle of the molecule.Dental cariesEndodontic therapy: Endodontic therapy or root canal therapy is a sequence of treatment for the infected pulp of a tooth which results in the elimination of infection and the protection of the decontaminated tooth from future microbial invasion. Root canals and their associated pulp chamber are the physical hollows within a tooth that are naturally inhabited by nerve tissue, blood vessels and other cellular entities which together constitute the dental pulp.MalocclusionDemineralization (physiology): Demineralization - it is the opposite process of mineralization, a process to reduce the content of mineral substances in tissue or organism, such as bone demineralization, of teeth. Demineralization can lead to serious diseases such as osteoporosis or tooth decay.HypodontiaBundle bone: Bundle bone is a histologic term for the portion of the bone of the alveolar process that surrounds teeth and into which the collagen fibers of the periodontal ligament are embedded.Araujo, M; Lindhe, J: The Edentulous Alveolar Ridge.Dentinogenesis: Dentinogenesis is the formation of dentin, a substance that forms the majority of teeth. Dentinogenesis is performed by odontoblasts, which are a special type of biological cell on the outer wall of dental pulps, and it begins at the late bell stage of a tooth development.Amelogenesis: Amelogenesis is the formation of enamel on teeth and begins when the crown is forming during the bell stage of tooth development after dentinogenesis, which is the formation of dentin. Although dentin must be present for enamel to be formed, ameloblasts must also be for dentinogenesis to continue.Panoramic radiographPhoenix abscess: A phoenix abscess is a dental abscess that can occur immediately following root canal treatment. Another cause is due to untreated necrotic pulp (chronic apical periodontitis).Cavity wall insulation: Cavity wall insulation is used to reduce heat loss through a cavity wall by filling the air space with material that inhibits heat transfer. This immobilises the air within the cavity (air is still the actual insulator), preventing convection, and can substantially reduce space heating costs.Tufting (composites): In the field of composite materials, tufting is an experimental technology to locally reinforce continuous fibre-reinforced plastics along the z-direction, with the objective of enhancing the shear and delamination resistance of the structure.Tuftelin: Tuftelin is an acidic phosphorylated glycoprotein found in tooth enamel. In humans, the Tuftelin protein is encoded by the TUFT1 gene.Enamel hypoplasiaMicrurus diastemaOvereruption: In dentistry, overeruption is the physiological movement of a tooth lacking an opposing partner in the dental occlusion. Because of the lack of opposing force and the natural eruptive potential of the tooth there is a tendency for the tooth to erupt out of the line of the occlusion.Enamel rod: An Enamel rod is the basic unit of tooth enamel. Measuring 4 μm wide to 8 μm high, an enamel rod is a tightly packed, highly organized mass of hydroxyapatite crystals, which are hexagonal in shape and provide rigidity to the rods and strengthen the enamel.Nordic Institute of Dental Materials: NorwayBone destruction patterns in periodontal disease: In periodontal disease, not only does the bone that supports the teeth, known as alveolar bone, reduce in height in relation to the teeth, but the morphology of the remaining alveolar bone is altered.Carranza, FA: Bone Loss and Patterns of Bone Destruction.Post and core: A post and core (colloquially known as a "post" or "dental post") is a type of dental restorationCallixeinus: Callixeinus () was an Athenian politician who lived around 400 BCE, the time of Socrates. In the political aftermath of the Battle of Arginusae, Callixeinus was a lead instigator in the en masse trial and execution of 6 generals, including Thrasyllus and Pericles the Younger, son of Aspasia and Pericles.BrittlenessPulpitisMasticationWhite Portland cement: White Taavo Portland cement or white ordinary Portland cement (WOPC) is similar to ordinary, gray Portland cement in all aspects except for its high degree of whiteness. Obtaining this color requires substantial modification to the method of manufacture, and because of this, it is somewhat more expensive than the gray product.Home appliance: Home appliances are electrical/mechanical machines which accomplish some household functions, such as cooking or cleaning. Home appliances can be classified into:Dental plaque: Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that grows on surfaces within the mouth. It appears as a white or pale yellow "slime layer", that is commonly found between the teeth and along the cervical margins.Equine malocclusion: An equine malocclusion is a misalignment between the upper and lower jaws of a horse or other equine. It results in a faulty bite with the upper and lower teeth failing to meet correctly.
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