Plateau pressure: Plateau pressure (PPLAT) is the pressure applied to small airways and alveoli during positive-pressure mechanical ventilation.Morgan, Edward G.Peak inspiratory pressure: Peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) is the highest level of pressure applied to the lungs during inhalation. In mechanical ventilation the number reflects a positive pressure in centimeters of water pressure (cmH2O).Cheyne–Stokes respirationDimefoxMedical ventilator: A medical ventilator (or simply ventilator in context) is a machine designed to mechanically move breathable air into and out of the lungs, to provide the mechanism of breathing for a patient who is physically unable to breathe, or breathing insufficiently.Nasal EPAPDead space (physiology): In physiology, dead space is the volume of air which is inhaled that does not take part in the gas exchange, either because it (1) remains in the conducting airways, or (2) reaches alveoli that are not perfused or poorly perfused. In other words, not all the air in each breath is available for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.Infant respiratory distress syndromeList of countries by carbon dioxide emissionsIntravascular volume status: In medicine, intravascular volume status refers to the volume of blood in a patient's circulatory system, and is essentially the blood plasma component of the overall volume status of the body, which otherwise includes both intracellular fluid and extracellular fluid. Still, the intravascular component is usually of primary interest, and volume status is sometimes used synonymously with intravascular volume status.BalloonBradypneaPermissive hypercapnia: Permissive hypercapnia is hypercapnia, (i.e.Pulmonary volutrauma: Pulmonary volutrauma — Volutrauma is essentially damage to the lung caused by overdistention by a mechanical ventilator set for an excessively high tidal volume; resulting in a syndrome similar to adult respiratory distress syndrome. Volutrauma is separate from Pulmonary barotrauma because the mechanism of injury is excessive volume (volutrauma), instead of pressure (barotrauma).Lung receptor: Lung receptors sense irritation or inflammation in the bronchi and alveoli.Gas analysis: Gas analysis could refer to any of the following:Arteriovenous oxygen difference: The arteriovenous oxygen difference, or a-vO2 diff, is the difference in the oxygen content of the blood between the arterial blood and the venous blood. It is an indication of how much oxygen is removed from the blood in capillaries as the blood circulates in the body.Air displacement pipettePlethysmographHyperventilation syndromeDiaphragmatic excursion: Diaphragmatic excursion is the movement of the thoracic diaphragm during breathing.Transpulmonary pressure: Transpulmonary pressure is the difference between the alveolar pressure and the intrapleural pressure in the lungs. During human ventilation, air flows because of pressure gradients.Pulmonary gas pressures: The factors that determine the values for alveolar pO2 and pCO2 are:History of tracheal intubation: Tracheal intubation (usually simply referred to as intubation), an invasive medical procedure, is the placement of a flexible plastic catheter into the trachea. For millennia, tracheotomy was considered the most reliable (and most risky) method of tracheal intubation.Capnography: Capnography is the monitoring of the concentration or partial pressure of carbon dioxide () in the respiratory gases. Its main development has been as a monitoring tool for use during anesthesia and intensive care.Spontaneous breathing trial: A goal for most patients on mechanical ventilation is to be weaned from the ventilator. The weaning process is highly dependent on the patient's pathology, but the final common pathway to ventilator independence always includes at least one trial of spontaneous breathing.End-diastolic volume: In cardiovascular physiology, end-diastolic volume (EDV) is the volume of blood in the right and/or left ventricle at end load or filling in (diastole) or the amount of blood in the ventricles just before systole. Because greater EDVs cause greater distention of the ventricle, 'EDV is often used synonymously with preload, which refers to the length of the sarcomeres in cardiac muscle prior to contraction (systole).Pulmonary stretch receptors: Pulmonary stretch receptors are mechanoreceptors found in the lungs.Alveolar gas equation: The partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in the pulmonary alveoli is required to calculate both the alveolar-arterial gradient of oxygen and the amount of right-to-left cardiac shunt, which are both clinically useful quantities. However it is not practical to take a sample of gas from the alveoli in order to directly measure the partial pressure of oxygen.Expiratory apnea: Expiratory apnea is a voluntary condition performed by a patient during a doctor's examination. By breathing out and then holding one's breath, it gets easier for the doctor to perform an auscultation of the heart with a stethoscope.Chronic lung diseaseBeta encoder: A beta encoder is an analog to digital conversion (A/D) system in which a real number in the unit interval is represented by a finite representation of a sequence in base beta, with beta being a real number between 1 and 2. Beta encoders are an alternative to traditional approaches to pulse code modulation.Spirometer: A spirometer is an apparatus for measuring the volume of air inspired and expired by the lungs. A spirometer measures ventilation, the movement of air into and out of the lungs.Hollander beater: A Hollander beater is a machine developed by the Dutch in 1680 to produce paper pulp from cellulose containing plant fibers. It replaced stamp mills for preparing pulp because the Hollander could produce in one day the same quantity of pulp it would take a stamp mill eight days to prepare.Anesthesia cart: Anesthesia carts are hospital devices used to store tools that are necessary for aid during procedures that require administration of anesthesia. Anesthesia refers to the use of drugs to subdue a patient's mind and prevent him or her from feeling any pain during a surgical operation.Luis Gabriel Cano: Luis Gabriel Cano Isaza (1924-2010)El Espectador obituary (In Spanish) was the President and publisher of El Espectador who won the Golden Pen of Freedom Award in 1990 for his writings on the cocaine traffic. His brother Guillermo, who had also worked on the paper, had been assassinated by drug gangs.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingFlash pulmonary edema: In medicine, flash pulmonary edema (oedema in British English) (FPE), is rapid onset pulmonary edema. It is most often precipitated by acute myocardial infarction or mitral regurgitation, but can be caused by aortic regurgitation, heart failure, or almost any cause of elevated left ventricular filling pressures.General anaesthesia: General anaesthesia (or general anesthesia) is a medically induced coma and loss of protective reflexes resulting from the administration of one or more general anaesthetic agents. A variety of medications may be administered, with the overall aim of ensuring unconsciousness, amnesia, analgesia, relaxation of skeletal muscles, and loss of control of reflexes of the autonomic nervous system.Central chemoreceptors: Central chemoreceptors of the central nervous system, located on the ventrolateral medullary surface in the vicinity of the exit of the 9th and 10th cranial nerves, are sensitive to the pH of their environment.LaerdalDioctyl terephthalateRespirometer: A respirometer is a device used to measure the rate of respiration of a living organism by measuring its rate of exchange of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide. They allow investigation into how factors such as age, chemicals or the effect of light affect the rate of respiration.Cardiac function curve: A cardiac function curve is a graph showing the relationship between right atrial pressure (x-axis) and cardiac output (y-axis).Bainbridge reflex: The Bainbridge reflex, also called the atrial reflex, is an increase in heart rate due to an increase in central venous pressure. Increased blood volume is detected by stretch receptors (baroreceptors) located in both atria at the venoatrial junctions.Aerosolization: Aerosolization is the process or act of converting some physical substance into the form of particles small and light enough to be carried on the air i.e.Surfactant metabolism dysfunction: Surfactant metabolism dysfunction is a condition where pulmonary surfactant is insufficient for adequate respiration.Hypoxic hypoxia: Hypoxic hypoxia is a result of insufficient oxygen available to the lungs. A blocked airway, a drowning or a reduction in partial pressure (high altitude above 10,000 feet) are examples of how lungs can be deprived of oxygen.Diaphragm pacing: == Introduction ==Optoelectronic plethysmography: Optoelectronic plethysmography (OEP) is a method to evaluate ventilation through an external measurement of the chest wall surface motion.EprozinolHelium-3Time stretch analog-to-digital converter: The time-stretch analog-to-digital converter (TS-ADC),A. S.Interbeat interval: Interbeat interval is a scientific term used in the study of the mammalian heart.Bronchoconstriction: Bronchoconstriction is the constriction of the airways in the lungs due to the tightening of surrounding smooth muscle, with consequent coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.Joan Hodgman: Dr. Joan Hodgman (7 September 1923 – 10 August 2008) (first name pronounced jo-ANN) was a pioneer of neonatology.Positive pressure: Positive pressure is a pressure within a system that is greater than the environment that surrounds that system. Consequently, if there is any leak from the positively pressured system it will egress into the surrounding environment.Aortic pressure: Central aortic blood pressure (CAP or CASP) is the blood pressure at the root of aorta. Studies have shown the importance of central aortic pressure and its implications in assessing the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment with respect to cardiovascular risk factors.HyperintensityLying (position)Flat-chested kitten syndrome: Flat-chested kitten syndrome (FCKS), is a disorder in cats, wherein kittens develop a compression of the thorax (chest/ribcage) caused by vertebral malformation. In mild cases, the underside of the chest becomes flattened (hence the name of the condition); in extreme cases the entire thorax is flattened, looking as if the kitten has been stepped on.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Volume rendering: 250px|thumb| A volume rendered cadaver head using view-aligned [[texture mapping and diffuse reflection]]Dietmar Wittmann: Dietmar H. Wittmann, M.