Surface modification: Surface modification is the act of modifying the surface of a material by bringing physical, chemical or biological characteristics different from the ones originally found on the surface of a material.Nanopin film: Nanopin film is an experimental material in nanotechnology developed in 2005 with unusual superhydrophobic properties . A droplet of water makes contact with the surface of this film and forms an almost perfect sphere with a contact angle of 178°.Gentamicin protection assay: The gentamicin protection assay or survival assay or invasion assay is a method used in microbiology. It is used to quantify the ability of pathogenic bacteria to invade eukaryotic cells.Tensiometer (surface tension): A Tensiometer as it applies to physics is an instrument used to measure the surface tension (\scriptstyle\gamma) of liquids or surfaces. Tensiometers are used in research and development laboratories to determine the surface tension of liquids like coatings, lacquers or adhesives.Titanium nitrideAdsorptionChrome platingPolystyreneSurface modification of biomaterials with proteins: Biomaterials are materials that are used in contact with biological systems. Biocompatibility and applicability of surface modification with current uses of metallic, polymeric and ceramic biomaterials allow alteration of properties to enhance performance in a biological environment while retaining bulk properties of the desired device.Waviness: Waviness is the measurement of the more widely spaced component of surface texture. It is a broader view of roughness because it is more strictly defined as "the irregularities whose spacing is greater than the roughness sampling length".Countercurrent chromatographyBrittlenessField emission probesSurfactant metabolism dysfunction: Surfactant metabolism dysfunction is a condition where pulmonary surfactant is insufficient for adequate respiration.OctaneMolecular Foundry: thumbnail|200px|The Molecular Foundry building in Berkeley, CaliforniaMetal halides: Metal halides are compounds between metals and halogens. Some, such as sodium chloride are ionic, while others are covalently bonded.Coulter counter: 150px|thumb|right|The tip of the Coulter counter in a buffer solution, counting cells in solution.Alan S. Kornacki: Alan Stanley Kornacki (born May 4, 1952, in Bayonne, New Jersey) is an American geologist and retired Army colonel, currently the Senior Staff Geochemist at Shell International Exploration and Production Inc."...Cell membraneCorona treatment: Corona treatment (sometimes referred to as air plasma) is a surface modification technique that uses a low temperature corona discharge plasma to impart changes in the properties of a surface. The corona plasma is generated by the application of high voltage to an electrode that has a sharp tip.Nanosensors (company)Potassium fluoride on alumina: Potassium fluoride on alumina (KF/Al2O3) is a chemical agent consisting of potassium fluoride and aluminium oxide. It is a base which is used in organic synthesis.Fluorotelomer alcohol: Fluorotelomer alcohols, or FTOHs, are fluorotelomers with an alcohol functional group. They are volatile precursors to perfluorinated carboxylic acids, such as PFOA and PFNA, and other compounds.Nanoparticle: Nanoparticles are particles between 1 and 100 nanometers in size. In nanotechnology, a particle is defined as a small object that behaves as a whole unit with respect to its transport and properties.Self-cleaning glass: Self-cleaning glass is a specific type of glass with a surface that keeps itself free of dirt and grime.Borosilicate glass: Borosilicate glass is a type of glass with silica and boron trioxide as the main glass-forming constituents. Borosilicate glasses are known for having very low coefficients of thermal expansion (~3 × 10−6 /°C at 20 °C), making them resistant to thermal shock, more so than any other common glass.Outline of water: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to water:Polymer blend: A polymer blend or polymer mixture is a member of a class of materials analogous to metal alloys, in which at least two polymers are blended together to create a new material with different physical properties. Section 3.Iron nitride: Iron nitrides are inorganic chemical compounds.Streptococcus mitis: Streptococcus mitis, previously known as Streptococcus mitior, is a mesophilic alpha-hemolytic species of Streptococcus that inhabits the human mouth. It is most commonly found in the throat, nasopharynx, and mouth.Spin casting: Spin casting, also known as centrifugal rubber mold casting (CRMC), is a method of utilizing centrifugal force to produce castings from a rubber mold. Typically, a disc-shaped mold is spun along its central axis at a set speed.Blue colour works: A blue colour works () is a paintworks where blue paint for use in glassmaking is produced. Usually the pigment, cobalt blue, needed for this purpose, was manufactured from cobalt-containing ore as in the case of the factories listed below.Poloxamer: Poloxamers are nonionic triblock copolymers composed of a central hydrophobic chain of polyoxypropylene (poly(propylene oxide)) flanked by two hydrophilic chains of polyoxyethylene (poly(ethylene oxide)). The word "poloxamer" was coined by the inventor, Irving Schmolka, who received the patent for these materials in 1973.Electrophoresis (disambiguation): Electrophoresis is the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field.Solubility: Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent to form a solution of the solute in the solvent. The solubility of a substance fundamentally depends on the physical and chemical properties of the solute and solvent as well as on temperature, pressure and the pH of the solution.Soft lithography: In technology, soft lithography refers to a family of techniques for fabricating or replicating structures using "elastomeric stamps, molds, and conformable photomasks".In the words of Rogers and Nuzzo, p.PEGylationSodium pareth sulfate: Sodium pareth sulfate is a surfactant found in some detergent products such as hand or body washes, but not as commonly as other chemicals such as sodium laureth sulfate. It is produced similar to sodium laureth sulfate starting from synthetic fatty alcohols with 12 to 13 carbon atoms.Mains electricity by country: Mains electricity by country includes a list of countries and territories, with the plugs, voltages and frequencies they use for providing electrical power to small appliances and some major appliances. Every country has differing rules regarding distribution of electricity for portable appliances and lighting.DodecaneEnergy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy: Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, EDX, or XEDS), sometimes called energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) or energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA), is an analytical technique used for the elemental analysis or chemical characterization of a sample. It relies on an interaction of some source of X-ray excitation and a sample.BiofilmPhosphatidylglycerolRed cell agglutination: In haematology, red cell agglutination is the process whereby red cells clump together forming aggregates. This is seen in Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, cold agglutinin disease and Infection with Mycoplasma Pneumonia.Diffuse reflectance infrared fourier transform: Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS)C.-P.Coelan Marine Coatings: Coelan Marine Coatings area special highly UV-resistant coatings Coelan Application Guide invented by Coelan in 1992 and are used widely in the marine industry as coatings for wood, plastic, metal and fiberglass surfaces.Premapro: Material Data Safety Sheet Coelan Marine Coatings are currently manufactured by Kemper Systems under the brand name COELAN.Powder coating: [Coating Aluminium Extrusions.jpg|thumb|right|Aluminium extrusions being powder coated]Food physical chemistry: Food physical chemistry is considered to be a branch of Food chemistryJohn M. de Man.Cell adhesionInternational Pharmaceutical Excipients Council: International Pharmaceutical Excipients Council is a global organization founded in 1991 representing producers, suppliers, and end users of excipients. The body has three divisions in Europe, Japan, and the United States, each of which focuses on local regulations concerning the excipients market, as well as on new research and business practices.Nordic Institute of Dental Materials: NorwayCell envelope: The cell envelope comprises the inner cell membrane and the cell wall of a bacterium, if present, plus a bacterial outer membrane, if one is present (i.e.Low-voltage electron microscope: Low-voltage electron microscope (LVEM) is an electron microscope which operates at accelerating voltages of a few kiloelectronvolts or less. While the low voltage electron microscopy technique will never replace conventional high voltage electron microscopes, it is quickly becoming appreciated for many different disciplines.Silicon dioxideBiotinylated dextran amine: Biotinylated dextran amines (BDA) are organic compounds used as anterograde and retrograde neuroanatomical tracers. They can be used for labeling the source as well as the point of termination of neural connections and therefore to study neural pathways.Phagocytosis: In cell biology, phagocytosis ( (phagein) |to devour||, (kytos) |cell||-osis|process}}) is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal vesicle known as a phagosome. Phagocytosis was first noted by Canadian physician William Osler, and later studied by Élie Metchnikoff.Alkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.Eagle's minimal essential medium: Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM) is a cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle that can be used to maintain cells in tissue culture.Microsphere: Microspheres are small spherical particles, with diameters in the micrometer range (typically 1 μm to 1000 μm (1 mm)). Microspheres are sometimes referred to as microparticles.History of nanotechnology: The history of nanotechnology traces the development of the concepts and experimental work falling under the broad category of nanotechnology. Although nanotechnology is a relatively recent development in scientific research, the development of its central concepts happened over a longer period of time.Pilin: Pilin refers to a class of fibrous proteins that are found in pilus structures in bacteria. Bacterial pili are used in the exchange of genetic material during bacterial conjugation, while a shorter type of appendages also made up of pilin, called fimbriae, are used as a cell adhesion mechanism.Leguminous lectin family: In molecular biology, the leguminous lectin family is a family of lectin proteins.Bipolar electrochemistry: Bipolar electrochemistry is a phenomenon in electrochemistry based on the polarization of conducting objects in electric fields. Indeed, this polarization generates a potential difference between the two extremities of the substrate that is equal to the electric field value multiplied by the size of the object.Polyvalent DNA gold nanoparticles: Polyvalent DNA gold nanoparticles are colloidal gold whose surface is modified with thiol capped synthetic DNA sequences. They were co-discovered by Chad Mirkin et al.Egg lecithinPowder diffraction: Powder diffraction is a scientific technique using X-ray, neutron, or electron diffraction on powder or microcrystalline samples for structural characterization of materials.B.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.OsteoblastLiposomeStreptococcus mutans: Streptococcus mutans is facultatively anaerobic, Gram-positive coccus-shaped bacterium commonly found in the human oral cavity and is a significant contributor to tooth decay.Ascospore: An ascospore is a spore contained in an ascus or that was produced inside an ascus. This kind of spore is specific to fungi classified as ascomycetes (Ascomycota).Reaction coordinateHexagonal crystal system: In crystallography, the hexagonal crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems, the hexagonal lattice system is one of the 7 lattice systems, and the hexagonal crystal family is one of the 6 crystal families. They are closely related and often confused with each other, but they are not the same.Direct agglutination test: A direct agglutination test (DAT) is any test that uses whole organisms as a means of looking for serum antibodies. The abbreviation, DAT, is most frequently used for the serological test for visceral leishmaniasis.Carbon–carbon bond: A carbon–carbon bond is a covalent bond between two carbon atoms. The most common form is the single bond: a bond composed of two electrons, one from each of the two atoms.Teichoic acid: Teichoic acids (cf. Greek τεῖχος, teīkhos, "wall", to be specific a fortification wall, as opposed to τοῖχος, toīkhos, a regular wall) are bacterial polysaccharides of glycerol phosphate or ribitol phosphate linked via phosphodiester bonds.Coles Phillips