Potassium superoxideSuperoxide dismutase: Superoxide dismutase (SOD, ) is an enzyme that alternately catalyzes the dismutation (or partitioning) of the superoxide (O2−) radical into either ordinary molecular oxygen (O2) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Superoxide is produced as a by-product of oxygen metabolism and, if not regulated, causes many types of cell damage.Catalase: Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms exposed to oxygen (such as bacteria, plants, and animals). It catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen.Tetratricopeptide: B:89-122 A:522-555 B:228-261Vaporized hydrogen peroxide: Vaporized hydrogen peroxide — also known as hydrogen peroxide vapor, HPV, and by the trademarked name VHP — is a vapor form of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with applications as a low-temperature antimicrobial vapor used to decontaminate enclosed and sealed areas such as laboratory workstations, isolation and pass-through rooms, and even aircraft interiors.Mitochondrial ROS: Mitochondrial ROS (mtROS or mROS) are reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are produced by mitochondria. Generation of mitochondrial ROS mainly takes place at the electron transport chain located on the inner mitochondrial membrane during the process of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS).TroloxXanthine oxidase inhibitor: A xanthine oxidase inhibitor is any substance that inhibits the activity of xanthine oxidase, an enzyme involved in purine metabolism. In humans, inhibition of xanthine oxidase reduces the production of uric acid, and several medications that inhibit xanthine oxidase are indicated for treatment of hyperuricemia and related medical conditions including gout.Free-radical reaction: A free-radical reaction is any chemical reaction involving free radicals. This reaction type is abundant in organic reactions.Paraquat murders: The paraquat murders were a series of indiscriminate poisonings carried out in Japan in 1985. Police were unable to gather any evidence about the murders other than they were caused by a poisoned beverage that was left inside or around vending machines.Table of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.Neutrophil granulocyteGlutathione peroxidaseSodium diethyldithiocarbamateArteriovenous oxygen difference: The arteriovenous oxygen difference, or a-vO2 diff, is the difference in the oxygen content of the blood between the arterial blood and the venous blood. It is an indication of how much oxygen is removed from the blood in capillaries as the blood circulates in the body.Nitro blue tetrazolium chlorideMotexafin gadoliniumSite-directed spin labeling: Site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) is a technique for investigating the structure and local dynamics of proteins using electron spin resonance. The theory of SDSL is based on the specific reaction of spin labels with amino acids.Copper toxicityLipid peroxidationHydroxylManganese deficiency (plant): Manganese (Mn) deficiency is a plant disorder that is often confused with, and occurs with, iron deficiency. Most common in poorly drained soils, also where organic matter levels are high.Amphibacillus xylanus: Amphibacillus xylanus or A. xylanus is a gram-positive-spore forming bacterium with cells 0.MalondialdehydeMitochondrion: The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. The word mitochondrion comes from the Greek , , i.PhenacylZero field splitting: Zero field splitting describes various interactions of the energy levels of an electron spin (S>1/2) even in the absence of an applied magnetic field. It is important in the electron spin resonance of biological molecules.Iron(II) hydroxideEtamiphyllinePeroxynitrous acidPelobacter acidigallici: Pelobacter acidigallici is the type species in the bacteria genus Pelobacter.Respiratory burst: Respiratory burst (sometimes called oxidative burst) is the rapid release of reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide) from different types of cells.Dioxetane: A dioxetane or dioxacyclobutane is an organic compound with formula C2O2H4, whose backbone is a four-membered ring of two oxygen atoms and two carbon atoms. There are two isomers:Endothelial activation: Endothelial activation is a proinflammatory and procoagulant state of the endothelial cells lining the lumen of blood vessels. It is most characterized by an increase in interactions with white blood cells (leukocytes), and it is associated with the early states of atherosclerosis and sepsis, among others.Amyotrophic lateral sclerosisNitric-oxide synthase (NAD(P)H-dependent): Nitric-oxide synthase (NAD(P)H-dependent) (, nitric oxide synthetase, NO synthase) is an enzyme with system name L-arginine,NAD(P)H:oxygen oxidoreductase (nitric-oxide-forming). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionBiopterinThiobarbituric acidTrimethyloxonium tetrafluoroborateVasodilation: Vasodilation (or vasodilatation) refers to the widening of blood vessels. It results from relaxation of smooth muscle cells within the vessel walls, in particular in the large veins, large arteries, and smaller arterioles.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Isometamidium chlorideNitrovasodilator: A nitrovasodilator is a pharmaceutical agent that causes vasodilation (widening of blood vessels) by donation of nitric oxide (NO), and is mostly used for the treatment and prevention of angina pectoris.Concentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Iron stress repressed RNA: Iron stress repressed RNA (IsrR) is a cis-encoded antisense RNA which regulates the expression of the photosynthetic protein isiA. IsiA expression is activated by the Ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) under iron stress conditions.OxypurinolMyeloperoxidase deficiency: Myeloperoxidase deficiency is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder featuring deficiency, either in quantity or of function, of myeloperoxidase, an enzyme found in certain phagocytic immune cells, especially polymorphonuclear leukocytes.ZymosanPhorbol 12,13-dibutyrateNo Mend No RepairPhagocyte: Phagocytes are cells that protect the body by ingesting (phagocytosing) harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells. Their name comes from the Greek phagein, "to eat" or "devour", and "-cyte", the suffix in biology denoting "cell", from the Greek kutos, "hollow vessel".Ascorbic acidAconitaseBeef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Zinc toxicityCytochrome C1: Cytochrome C1 is formed in the cytosol and targeted to the mitochondrial intermembrane space. It is one of the constituents of complex III, which forms the third proton pump in the mitochondrial electron transport chain.ImmunodeficiencyNitrogen oxide sensor: A nitrogen oxide sensor or NOx sensor is typically a high-temperature device built to detect nitrogen oxides in combustion environments such as an automobile or truck tailpipe or a smokestack.Radiolysis: Radiolysis is the dissociation of molecules by nuclear radiation. It is the cleavage of one or several chemical bonds resulting from exposure to high-energy flux.Respirometer: A respirometer is a device used to measure the rate of respiration of a living organism by measuring its rate of exchange of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide. They allow investigation into how factors such as age, chemicals or the effect of light affect the rate of respiration.Gross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.DyP-type peroxidase family: In molecular biology, the DyP-type peroxidase family is a family of haem peroxidase enzymes.NONOateObligate aerobe: 300px|thumb|Aerobic and anaerobic [[bacteria can be identified by growing them in test tubes of thioglycollate broth: 1: Obligate aerobes need oxygen because they cannot ferment or respire anaerobically. They gather at the top of the tube where the oxygen concentration is highest.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingAcridine carboxamide: Acridine carboxamide is an chemotherapy agent that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called topoisomerase inhibitors.Ethidium homodimer assay: An ethidium homodimer assay can be used to detect dead or dying cells. Ethidium homodimer is a membrane-impermeable fluorescent dye which binds to DNA.Organic peroxidePhytomedicineGlucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family: In molecular biology, the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family (GMC oxidoreductase) is a family of enzymes with oxidoreductase activity.Isocyanide: An isocyanide (also called isonitrile or carbylamine) is an organic compound with the functional group -N≡C. It is the isomer of the related cyanide (-C≡N), hence the prefix iso.Phagocytosis: In cell biology, phagocytosis ( (phagein) |to devour||, (kytos) |cell||-osis|process}}) is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal vesicle known as a phagosome. Phagocytosis was first noted by Canadian physician William Osler, and later studied by Élie Metchnikoff.Coles PhillipsMetallocene: A metallocene is a compound typically consisting of two cyclopentadienyl anions (Cp, which is C5H5−) bound to a metal center (M) in the oxidation state II, with the resulting general formula (C5H5)2M. Closely related to the metallocenes are the metallocene derivatives, e.
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