SarpogrelateSuccinate dehydrogenase subunit E: In molecular biology, the protein domain named Sdh5 is also named SdhE which stands for succinate dehydrogenase protein E. In the past, it has also been named YgfY and DUF339.Iron(II) fumarateMalate-aspartate shuttle: The malate-aspartate shuttle (sometimes also the malate shuttle) is a biochemical system for translocating electrons produced during glycolysis across the semipermeable inner membrane of the mitochondrion for oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotes. These electrons enter the electron transport chain of the mitochondria via reduction equivalents to generate ATP.Reverse Krebs cycle: The reverse Krebs cycle (also known as the reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle, the reverse TCA cycle, or the reverse citric acid cycle)Anaerobic C4-dicarboxylate membrane transporter protein: In molecular biology, the anaerobic C4-dicarboxylate membrane transporter protein family (or C4-dicarboxylate Uptake (Dcu) family) is a family of proteins which includes the DcuA, DcuB and DcuC proteins. Many members of this family are predicted to have 12 GES predicted transmembrane regions, however the one member of this family whose membrane topology has been experimentally determined has 10 transmembrane regions, with both the N- and C-termini localized to the periplasm.Tocopherol: Tocopherols (TCP) are a class of organic chemical compounds (more precisely, various methylated phenols), many of which have vitamin E activity. Because the vitamin activity was first identified in 1936 from a dietary fertility factor in rats, it was given the name "tocopherol" from the Greek words "tókos[[,] birth], and "[[phérein, to bear or carry meaning in sum "to carry a pregnancy," with the ending "-ol" signifying its status as a chemical [[alcohol.Acetonedicarboxylic acidMalonic acidDodecanedioic acidGangliocytic paraganglioma: A gangliocytic paraganglioma, abbreviated GP, is a rare tumour that is typically found in the duodenum and consists of three components: (1) ganglion cells, (2) epithelioid cells (paraganglioma-like) and, (3) spindle cells (schwannoma-like).Electron transfer: Electron transfer (ET) occurs when an electron moves from an atom or a chemical species (e.g.Respirometer: A respirometer is a device used to measure the rate of respiration of a living organism by measuring its rate of exchange of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide. They allow investigation into how factors such as age, chemicals or the effect of light affect the rate of respiration.Mitochondrion: The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. The word mitochondrion comes from the Greek , , i.Glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family: In molecular biology, the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family (GMC oxidoreductase) is a family of enzymes with oxidoreductase activity.SCH-442,416Table of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.Butyl acetate (disambiguation): Butyl acetate most often refers to n-butyl acetate. However, there are other isomers that may be considered to be butyl acetates:P/O ratio: The Phosphate/Oxygen Ratio, or P/O Ratio, refers to the amount of ATP produced from the movement of two electrons through a defined electron transport chain, donated by reduction of an oxygen atom.Garrett & Grisham 2010, p.NADH:ubiquinone reductase (non-electrogenic): NADH:ubiquinone reductase (non-electrogenic) (, ubiquinone reductase, coenzyme Q reductase, dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-coenzyme Q reductase, DPNH-coenzyme Q reductase, DPNH-ubiquinone reductase, NADH-coenzyme Q oxidoreductase, NADH-coenzyme Q reductase, NADH-CoQ oxidoreductase, NADH-CoQ reductase) is an enzyme with system name NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionHypotoniaSodium propionateMcIntosh and Filde's anaerobic jar: McIntosh and Filde's anaerobic jar is an instrument used in the production of an anaerobic environment. This method of anaerobiosis as others is used to culture bacteria which die or fail to grow in presence of oxygen (anaerobes).DodecanolThenoyltrifluoroacetoneBurst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis protein family: In molecular biology, the iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis protein family of includes proteins involved in biogenesis of Fe-S clusters (iron-sulfur cluster insertion protein, Fe/S biogenesis protein). This family includes IscA, HesB, YadR and YfhF-like proteins.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.RotenoneFumarate lyase: A:13-309 A:8-300 A:90-301Flavoprotein: Flavoproteins are proteins that contain a nucleic acid derivative of riboflavin: the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) or flavin mononucleotide (FMN).Eagle's minimal essential medium: Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM) is a cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle that can be used to maintain cells in tissue culture.Trisodium citrateACES (nutritional supplement): Antioxidant supplements with varying amounts of carotene(s) for (pro) vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E and Selenium are known by the acronym, ACES. The commercial ACES formulas are a first generation, high potency, combined antioxidant that vary in component concentrations, specific components or source, and their ratio according to manufacturer and are available as both tablet and capsule.Yamaguchi esterification: The Yamaguchi esterification is the chemical reaction of an aliphatic carboxylic acid and 2,4,6-trichlorobenzoyl chloride (TCBC, Yamaguchi reagent) to form a mixed anhydride which, upon reaction with an alcohol in the presence of stoichiometric amount of DMAP, produces the desired ester. It was first reported by Masaru Yamaguchi et al.Glucose transporterObligate aerobe: 300px|thumb|Aerobic and anaerobic [[bacteria can be identified by growing them in test tubes of thioglycollate broth: 1: Obligate aerobes need oxygen because they cannot ferment or respire anaerobically. They gather at the top of the tube where the oxygen concentration is highest.Lactic acid fermentationDoxylamineTank chassis: Tank container chassis, also referred to as tank chassis, drop frame chassis or tank trailers, are a form of intermodal transportation for portable bulk liquid containers or ISO tank containers. They are characteristically longer and have lower deck height ideal for transporting constantly shifting payloads.Alkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Veillonella parvula: Veillonella parvula is a bacterium in the genus Veillonella. It is a normal part of the oral flora but can be associated with diseases such as periodontitis and dental caries as well as various systemic infections.Sodium pyruvateSteptoean positive carbon isotope excursion: The Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE) was a geological event which occurred about 500 million years ago at the end of the Cambrian Period. The SPICE event was a sudden reversal of the anoxia (lack of oxygen) that had steadily spread throughout the oceans during the Cambrian which also affected the atmosphere.Inhibitor protein: The inhibitor protein (IP) is situated in the mitochondrial matrix and protects the cell against rapid ATP hydrolysis during momentary ischaemia. In oxygen absence, the pH of the matrix drops.Isocitrate lyase family: A:9-427 C:9-427 D:9-427Polyhydroxybutyrate: Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), a polymer belonging to the polyesters class that are of interest as bio-derived and biodegradable plastics.Frieder W.Rumford furnace: A Rumford furnace is a kiln for the industrial scale production in the 19th century of calcium oxide, popularly known as quicklime or burnt lime. It was named after its inventor, Benjamin Thompson, also known as Count Rumford, and is sometimes called a Rüdersdorf furnace after the location where it was first built and from where the design rapidly spread throughout Europe.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Nitro compoundIsocyanide: An isocyanide (also called isonitrile or carbylamine) is an organic compound with the functional group -N≡C. It is the isomer of the related cyanide (-C≡N), hence the prefix iso.Dioxosuccinic acidSulfide:quinone reductase: Sulfide:quinone reductase () is an enzyme with system name sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionSpectrophotometry: In chemistry, spectrophotometry is the quantitative measurement of the reflection or transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength.Allen, D.Biot's respiration: Biot's respiration is an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by groups of quick, shallow inspirations followed by regular or irregular periods of apnea.AconitaseZero field splitting: Zero field splitting describes various interactions of the energy levels of an electron spin (S>1/2) even in the absence of an applied magnetic field. It is important in the electron spin resonance of biological molecules.Carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazoneFlavin groupColes PhillipsDithionous acidOxidative phosphorylation: Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) is the metabolic pathway in which the mitochondria in cells use their structure, enzymes, and energy released by the oxidation of nutrients to reform ATP. Although the many forms of life on earth use a range of different nutrients, ATP is the molecule that supplies energy to metabolism.Carbon–carbon bond: A carbon–carbon bond is a covalent bond between two carbon atoms. The most common form is the single bond: a bond composed of two electrons, one from each of the two atoms.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Transcellular transport: Transcellular transport involves the transportation of solutes by a cell through a cell. One classic example is the movement of glucose from the intestinal lumen to extracellular fluid by epithelial cells.Arteriovenous oxygen difference: The arteriovenous oxygen difference, or a-vO2 diff, is the difference in the oxygen content of the blood between the arterial blood and the venous blood. It is an indication of how much oxygen is removed from the blood in capillaries as the blood circulates in the body.NADH dehydrogenase: NADH dehydrogenase (, cytochrome c reductase, type 1 dehydrogenase, beta-NADH dehydrogenase dinucleotide, diaphorase, dihydrocodehydrogenase I dehydrogenase, dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase, diphosphopyridine diaphorase, DPNH diaphorase, NADH diaphorase, NADH hydrogenase, NADH oxidoreductase, NADH-menadione oxidoreductase, reduced diphosphopyridine nucleotide diaphorase) is an enzyme with systematic name NADH:acceptor oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionPseudomonas alkanolytica: Pseudomonas alkanolytica is a Gram-negative soil bacterium that produces Coenzyme A. Because this organism is patented,Nakao Y, Kuno M.
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