Quellung reaction: The Quellung reaction is a biochemical reaction in which antibodies bind to the bacterial capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Page 340 Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. The antibody reaction allows these species to be visualized under a microscope.Streptococcus dysgalactiae: Streptococcus dysgalactiae is a species of Streptococcus.Klebsiella pneumoniaTrans-activating crRNA: In molecular biology, trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA) is a small trans-encoded RNA. It was first discovered in the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes.Streptococcus mutans: Streptococcus mutans is facultatively anaerobic, Gram-positive coccus-shaped bacterium commonly found in the human oral cavity and is a significant contributor to tooth decay.Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a very small bacterium in the class Mollicutes.Cutaneous group B streptococcal infection: Cutaneous group B streptococcal infection may result in orbital cellulitis or facial erysipelas in neonates.Streptococcus agalactiae: Streptococcus agalactiae (also known as Group B streptococcus or GBS) is a gram-positive coccus with a tendency to form chains (streptococcus), beta-hemolytic, catalase-negative, and facultative anaerobe. Streptococcus agalactiae is the species designation for streptococci belonging to the group B of the Rebecca Lancefield classification.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.BacitracinThiol-activated cytolysin: Cholesterol-binding cytolysin, previously incorrectly known as 'thiol-activated' cytolysins Bacterial Disease Mechanisms: Michael Wilson, Rod McNab, Brian Henderson (2002)" are toxins produced by a variety of Gram-positive bacteria and are characterised by their ability to lyse cholesterol-containing membranes, their reversible inactivation by oxidation and their capacity to bind to cholesterol.Streptococcus mitis: Streptococcus mitis, previously known as Streptococcus mitior, is a mesophilic alpha-hemolytic species of Streptococcus that inhabits the human mouth. It is most commonly found in the throat, nasopharynx, and mouth.Bacterial capsule: The cell capsule is a very large structure of some prokaryotic cells, such as bacterial cells. It is a polysaccharide layer that lies outside the cell envelope of bacteria, and is thus deemed part of the outer envelope of a bacterial cell.Pneumococcal vaccine: A pneumococcal vaccine is a vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae.Resistome: The resistome is a proposed expression by Gerard D. Wright for the collection of all the antibiotic resistance genes and their precursors in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria.Streptococcus oralis: Streptococcus oralis is a Gram positive bacterium that grows characteristically in chains. It forms small white colonies on a Wilkins-Chalgren agar plate.Extended-spectrum penicillin: The extended-spectrum penicillins are a group of antibiotics that have the widest antibacterial spectrum of all penicillins.Comprehensive Pharmacy Review, Leon Shargel, 6th edition, p917 Some sources identify them with antipseudomonal penicillins,Elsevier's Integrated Review Pharmacology, By Mark Kester, Kelly Dowhower Karpa, Kent E.Streptococcus suis: Streptococcus suis is a peanut-shaped, Gram-positive bacterium, and an important pathogen of pigs. Endemic in nearly all countries with an extensive pig industry, S.ClinafloxacinErythromycin 3''-O-methyltransferase: Erythromycin 3-O-methyltransferase (, EryG) is an enzyme with system name S-adenosyl-L-methionine:erythromycin C 3-O-methyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionATC code S01: ==S01A Anti-infectives==Macrolide: The macrolides are a group of drugs (typically antibiotics) whose activity stems from the presence of a macrolide ring, a large macrocyclic lactone ring to which one or more deoxy sugars, usually cladinose and desosamine, may be attached. The lactone rings are usually 14-, 15-, or 16-membered.VanY protein domain: In molecular biology, VanY are protein domains found in enzymes named metallopeptidases. They are vital to bacterial cell wall synthesis and antibiotic resistance.Tympanocentesis: Tympanocentesis is the drainage of fluid from the middle ear usually caused by otitis media, by using a small-gauge needle to puncture the tympanic membrane, also known as the eardrum.ATC code J07: ==J07A Bacterial vaccines==Mycoplasma pneumoniaKetolideAvery–MacLeod–McCarty experimentCefotaximePolysaccharide encapsulated bacteriaColes PhillipsMoraxella catarrhalis: Moraxella catarrhalis is a fastidious, nonmotile, Gram-negative, aerobic, oxidase-positive diplococcus that can cause infections of the respiratory system, middle ear, eye, central nervous system, and joints of humans. It causes the infection of the host cell by sticking to the host cell using a Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins (TAA).LevofloxacinCeftriaxoneTopoisomerase IV: Topoisomerase IV is one of two type-II topoisomerases in bacteria, the other being DNA gyrase. Like gyrase, topoisomerase IV is able to pass one double-strand of DNA through another double-strand of DNA, thereby changing the linking number of DNA by two in each enzymatic step.SortaseLower respiratory tract infection: Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), while often used as a synonym for pneumonia, can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess and acute bronchitis. Symptoms include shortness of breath, weakness, fever, coughing and fatigue.TosufloxacinBacteremia: (NOS) |CSF glucose: (MCnc), (SCnc)Discovery and development of cephalosporins: Cephalosporins are a broad class of bactericidal antibiotics that include the β-lactam ring and share a structural similarity and mechanism of action with other β-lactam antibiotics (e.g.Anaerobacter: Anaerobacter are a genus of Gram-positive bacteria related to Clostridium. They are anaerobic chemotrophs and are unusual spore-formers as they produce more than one spore per bacterial cell (up to five spores).Bacterial pneumoniaConjugate vaccine: A conjugate vaccine is created by covalently attaching a poor (polysaccharide) antigen to a carrier protein (preferably from the same microorganism), thereby conferring the immunological attributes of the carrier to the attached antigen.Gentamicin protection assay: The gentamicin protection assay or survival assay or invasion assay is a method used in microbiology. It is used to quantify the ability of pathogenic bacteria to invade eukaryotic cells.Virulence: Virulence is, by MeSH definition, the degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of parasites as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenicity of an organism - its ability to cause disease - is determined by its virulence factors.Streptococcus gordonii: Streptococcus gordonii is a Gram-positive bacterium included among some of the initial colonizers of the periodontal environment. American Academy of Periodontology 2010 In-Service Exam, question 82 The organism, along with related oral streptococci, has a high affinity for molecules in the salivary pellicle (or coating) on tooth surfaces.AmitifadineGHKL domainOST4: In molecular biology, OST4 (Dolichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide--protein glycosyltransferase subunit 4) is a subunit of the oligosaccharyltransferase complex.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Enterococcus faecalis: Enterococcus faecalis – formerly classified as part of the group D Streptococcus system – is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium inhabiting the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other mammals. Like other species in the genus Enterococcus, E.Thermal cyclerPulsenet: PulseNet is a network run by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) which brings together public health and food regulatory agency laboratories around the United States.http://www.Exogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.Eagle's minimal essential medium: Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM) is a cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle that can be used to maintain cells in tissue culture.OrbifloxacinSilent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Trimeric autotransporter adhesin: In molecular biology, trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs), are proteins found on the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Bacteria use TAAs in order to infect their host cells via a process called cell adhesion.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Milad HospitalReplica plating: 350px|right|thumb|[[Negative selection (artificial selection)|Negative selection through replica plating to screen for ampicillin sensitive colonies]]Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.