Stomach diseaseReactive gastropathy: In gastroenterology, reactive gastropathy, also chemical gastropathy, is an abnormality in the stomach caused by chemicals, e.g.Gastric mucosal barrier: The gastric mucosal barrier is the property of the stomach that allows it to contain acid.Gastric erosion: Gastric erosion occurs when the mucous membrane lining the stomach becomes inflamed. Some drugs, as tablets, can irritate this mucous membrane, especially drugs taken for arthritis and muscular disorders, steroids, and aspirin.Gastrin: Gastrin is a peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid (HCl) by the parietal cells of the stomach and aids in gastric motility. It is released by G cells in the pyloric antrum of the stomach, duodenum, and the pancreas.Gastric volvulusGastrectomyCagA: Helicobacter pylori virulence factor CagA (cytotoxin-associated gene A) is a 120–145kDa protein encoded on the 40kb cag pathogenicity island (PAI). H.Secretagogue: A secretagogue is a substance that causes another substance to be secreted. One example is gastrin,secretagogue at eMedicine Dictionary which stimulates the H/K ATPase in the parietal cells (increased gastric acid production by the stomach).GastritisLittle gastrin IGastrocolic reflex: The gastrocolic reflex or gastrocolic response is one of a number of physiological reflexes controlling the motility, or peristalsis, of the gastrointestinal tract. It involves an increase in motility of the colon in response to stretch in the stomach and byproducts of digestion in the small intestine.Gastric acid: Gastric acid is a digestive fluid, formed in the stomach. It is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl) .Acute esophageal necrosisIntestinal metaplasia: 200px|right|thumb|Intestinal metaplasia (top middle of image) of the gastric antrum and [[stomach cancer|adenocarcinoma of the stomach (left/centre of image). H&E stain.PentagastrinAdenocarcinoma of the lung: Adenocarcinoma of the lung (pulmonary adenocarcinoma) is a common histological form of lung cancer that contains certain distinct malignant tissue architectural, cytological, or molecular features, including gland and/or duct formation and/or production of significant amounts of mucus.Hollander beater: A Hollander beater is a machine developed by the Dutch in 1680 to produce paper pulp from cellulose containing plant fibers. It replaced stamp mills for preparing pulp because the Hollander could produce in one day the same quantity of pulp it would take a stamp mill eight days to prepare.Cephalic phase: The cephalic phase of gastric secretion occurs even before food enters the stomach, especially while it is being eaten. It results from the sight, smell, thought, or taste of food, and the greater the appetite, the more intense is the stimulation.Angle of His: The angle of His is the acute angle created between the cardia at the entrance to the stomach, and the esophagus. It forms a valve, preventing reflux of duodenal bile, enzymes and stomach acid from entering the esophagus, where they can cause inflammation.Signet Armorlite: Signet Armorlite, Inc., an optical company owned by Essilor, recently celebrated its 60th anniversary since incorporation.Gastric chief cell: A gastric chief cell (or peptic cell, or gastric zymogenic cell) is a type of cell in the stomach that releases pepsinogen and gastric lipase and is the cell responsible for secretion of chymosin in ruminants. The cell stains basophilic upon H&E staining due to the large proportion of rough endoplasmic reticulum in its cytoplasm.Gastrointestinal physiology: Gastrointestinal physiology is a branch of human physiology addressing the physical function of the gastrointestinal (GI) system. The major processes occurring in the GI system are that of motility, secretion, regulation, digestion and circulation.BezoarHydrochloric acidEsophageal disease: Esophageal diseases can derive from congenital conditions, or they can be acquired later in life.MetiamideHistamine dihydrochloride: Histamine dihydrochloride (INN, trade name Ceplene) is a salt of histamine which is used as a drug for the prevention of relapse in patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It is an FDA approvedhttp://www.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingAlkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Digestive system of gastropods: The digestive system of gastropods (slugs and snails of every kind) has evolved to suit almost every kind of diet and feeding behavior. Gastropods as the largest taxonomic class of the mollusca are very diverse indeed: the group includes carnivores, herbivores, scavengers, filter feeders, and even parasites.Dodecameric protein: A dodecameric protein has a quaternary structure consisting of 12 protein subunits in a complex. Dodecameric complexes can have a number of subunit 'topologies', but typically only a few of the theoretically possible subunit arrangements are observed in protein structures.CimetidineGallbladder polyp: Gallbladder polyps are growths or lesions resembling growths (polypoid lesions) in the wall of the gallbladder. True polyps are abnormal accumulations of mucous membrane tissue that would normally be shed by the body.Poison: In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity."Poison" at Merriam-Webster.AchlorhydriaEnterochromaffin cell: Enterochromaffin (EC) cells, or "Kulchitsky cells", are a type of enteroendocrine and neuroendocrine cell occurring in the epithelia lining the lumen of the digestive tract and the respiratory tract that release serotonin.Coles PhillipsJejunumHippopotamus antiquus: Hippopotamus antiquus, sometimes called the European Hippopotamus, was a species of hippopotamus that ranged across Europe, becoming extinct some time before the last ice age at the end of the Pleistocene epoch. H.Ectopic testisEnterochromaffin-like cell: Enterochromaffin-like cells or ECL cells are a type of neuroendocrine cells found in the gastric glands of the gastric mucosa beneath the epithelium, in particular in the vicinity of parietal cells, that aid in the production of gastric acid via the release of histamine. They are also considered a type of enteroendocrine cell.Aspartate proteaseSuccussion splash: Succussion splash is a sloshing sound heard through the stethoscope during sudden movement of the patient on abdominal auscultation. It reflects the presence of gas and fluid in an obstructed organ, as in gastric outlet obstruction.Functional gastrointestinal disorder: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) include a number of separate idiopathic disorders which affect different parts of the gastrointestinal tract and involve visceral hypersensitivity and impaired gastrointestinal motility. Heightened mast cell activation is a common factor among all FGIDs that contributes to visceral hypersensitivity as well as epithelial, neuromuscular, and motility dysfunction.Anorectal manometryElectrogastrogram: An electrogastrogram (EGG) is a graphic produced by an electrogastrograph, which records the electrical signals that travel through the stomach muscles and control the muscles' contractions. An electrogastroenterogram (or gastroenterogram) is a similar procedure, which writes down electric signals not only from the stomach, but also from intestines.A. N. Hartley: Annie Norah Hartley (1902 – 1994), usually known simply as Norah Hartley, was a dog breeder and the first female board member of the Kennel Club.HematemesisEnteric duplication cyst: Enteric duplication cysts, sometimes simply called duplication cysts, are rare congenital malformations of the gastrointestinal tract. They most frequently occur in the small intestine, particularly the ileum, but can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract.John Lykoudis: John Lykoudis (1910 in Missolonghi – 1980) was a general practitioner in Greece who treated patients suffering from peptic ulcer disease with antibiotics long before it was commonly recognized that bacteria were a dominant cause for the disease.Muscle contraction: Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers. In physiology, muscle contraction does not mean muscle shortening because muscle tension can be produced without changes in muscle length such as holding a heavy book or a dumbbell at the same position.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Subtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine: Antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production in the United States and around the world. They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion.
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