Spinal stenosis: Spinal stenosis is an abnormal narrowing (stenosis) of the spinal canal that may occur in any of the regions of the spine. This narrowing causes a restriction to the spinal canal, resulting in a neurological deficit.Neuromere: Neuromeres are morphologically or molecularly defined transient segments of the early developing brain. Rhombomeres are such segments that make up the rhombencephalon or hindbrain.Spinal decompression: Spinal decompression is the relief of pressure on one or many pinched nerves (neural impingement) of the spinal column.LaminectomySpondylolisthesisCarotid artery stenosisAfterload: Afterload is the pressure in the wall of the left ventricle during ejection. In other words, it is the end load against which the heart contracts to eject blood.Rehabilitation in spinal cord injury: When treating a person with a spinal cord injury, repairing the damage created by injury is the ultimate goal. By using a variety of treatments, greater improvements are achieved, and, therefore, treatment should not be limited to one method.RadiculopathyInterbody fusion cage: An interbody fusion cage (colloquially known as a "spine cage") is a prosthesis used in spinal fusion procedures to maintain foraminal height and decompression. They are cylindrical or square-shaped devices, and usually threaded.Lumbar disc disease: Lumbar disc disease is the drying out of the spongy interior matrix of an intervertebral disc in the spine. Many physicians and patients use the term lumbar disc disease to encompass several different causes of back pain or sciatica.Cervical spine disorder: Cervical Spine Disorders are illnesses that are relatively detrimental to ones physical health. These ailments exist in the cervical spine which is made up of the upper first seven vertebrae, encasing and shielding the Spinal cord.Pulmonary artery sling: Pulmonary artery sling is a rare condition in which the left pulmonary artery anomalously originates from a normally positioned right pulmonary artery. The left pulmonary artery then progresses posteriorly over the right main bronchus near its origin from the trachea, traverses between the trachea and the esophagus and enters the left hilum.Sacral anterior root stimulator: An implantable medical device enabling patients with a spinal cord lesion to empty their bladders.Low back painIntermittent claudicationSpondylosisPyloric stenosisPain scale: A pain scale measures a patient's pain intensity or other features. Pain scales are based on self-report, observational (behavioral), or physiological data.Commissurotomy: A commissurotomy is a surgical incision of a commissure in the body, as one made in the heart at the edges of the commissure formed by cardiac valves, or one made in the brain to treat certain psychiatric disorders.International Disability and Development Consortium: The International Disability and Development Consortium (IDDC) is a global consortium of disability and development related organisations. The aim of IDDC is to promote inclusive development internationally, with a special focus on promoting human rights for all disabled people living in economically poor communities in lower and middle-income countries.Stenosis of pulmonary arteryCervical fractureSteroid use in Bollywood: The use of steroids by Bollywood actors has become highlighted in a number of newspaper and web articles where actors and models with previously very thin physiques have in a short period of time developed muscular bodies.Local anesthetic: Local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes reversible absence of pain sensation, although other senses are often affected as well. Also, when it is used on specific nerve pathways (local anesthetic nerve block), paralysis (loss of muscle power) can be achieved as well.HyperintensityCurrarino syndrome: The Currarino syndrome (also Currarino triad) is an inherited congenital disorder where (1) the sacrum (the fused vertebrae forming the back of the pelvis) is not formed properly, (2) there is a mass in the presacral space in front of the sacrum, and (3) there are malformations of the anus or rectum. It can also cause an anterior meningocele or a presacral teratoma.Epidural space: In the spine, the epidural space (from Ancient Greek ἐπί, "on, upon" + dura mater also known as "epidural cavity", "extradural space" or "peridural space") is an anatomic space that is the outermost part of the spinal canal. It is the space within the canal (formed by the surrounding vertebrae) lying outside the dura mater (which encloses the arachnoid mater, subarachnoid space, the cerebrospinal fluid, and the spinal cord).Cauda equina: The cauda equina (Latin for "horse's tail") is a bundle of spinal nerves and spinal nerve roots, consisting of the second through fifth lumbar nerve pairs, the first through fifth sacral nerve pairs, and the coccygeal nerve, all of which arise from the lumbar enlargement and the conus medullaris of the spinal cord. The cauda equina occupies the lumbar cistern, a subarachnoid space inferior to the conus medullaris.Superior cluneal nerves: The superior cluneal nerves innervate the skin of the upper part of the buttocks. They are the terminal ends of lateral rami of the posterior rami of lumbar spinal nerves (L1, 2, 3).Canine degenerative myelopathy: Canine degenerative myelopathy, also known as chronic degenerative radiculomyelopathy, is an incurable, progressive disease of the canine spinal cord that is similar in many ways to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Onset is typically after the age of 7 years and it is seen most frequently in the German shepherd dog, Pembroke Welsh corgi, and boxer dog, though the disorder is strongly associated with a gene mutation in SOD1 that has been found in 43 breeds as of 2008, including the wire fox terrier, Chesapeake Bay retriever, Rhodesian ridgeback, and Cardigan Welsh corgi.Falx cerebri: The falx cerebri is also known as the cerebral falx, named from its sickle-like form. It is a large, crescent-shaped fold of meningeal layer of dura mater that descends vertically in the longitudinal fissure between the cerebral hemispheres.Spinal anaesthesia: Spinal anaesthesia (or spinal anesthesia), also called spinal analgesia, spinal block or subarachnoid block (SAB), is a form of regional anaesthesia involving injection of a local anaesthetic into the subarachnoid space, generally through a fine needle, usually 9 cm long (3.5 inches).Journal of Minimal Access Surgery: Journal of Minimal Access Surgery (ISSN: Print - 0972-9941, Online - 1998-3921) is peer-reviewed open access journal published on behalf of the Indian Association of Gastrointestinal Endo Surgeons. The journal publishes articles on the subject of Laparoscopic and thoracoscopic surgery, laparoscopic urology and gastrointestinal endoscopy.Dense artery sign: In medicine, the dense artery sign or hyperdense artery sign is a radiologic sign seen on computer tomography (CT) scans suggestive of early ischemic stroke. In earlier studies of medical imaging in patients with strokes, it was the earliest sign of ischemic stroke in a significant minority of cases.Spinal tumorChronic painClay-shoveler fracture: Clay-shoveler's fracture is a stable fracture through the spinous process of a vertebra occurring at any of the lower cervical or upper thoracic vertebrae, classically at C6 or C7. In Australia in the 1930s, men digging deep ditches tossed clay 10 to 15 feet above their heads using long handled shovels.Betamethasone dipropionateDegenerative disc diseaseCancer pain: Pain in cancer may arise from a tumor compressing or infiltrating nearby body parts; from treatments and diagnostic procedures; or from skin, nerve and other changes caused by a hormone imbalance or immune response. Most chronic (long-lasting) pain is caused by the illness and most acute (short-term) pain is caused by treatment or diagnostic procedures.Harrington Meeting HouseAchondrogenesis type 1BDiscectomyChorangiosis: Chorangiosis is a placental pathology characterized by an abundance of blood vessels within the chorionic villi.FioricetLidocaine: lignocaineTraumatic spondylopathyPelvic lipomatosis: The rare disease pelvic lipomatosis is most often seen in older obese black men with hypertension. In pelvic lipomatosis, abnormally dense deposits of otherwise apparently normal fat may be observed in the spaces of the pelvic area.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingWalking on a Dream (song)Intervertebral disc damage and spaceflight: Astronauts have expressed an increased incidence of back pain during spaceflight and herniated intervertebral discs (IVD) have been diagnosed upon return of Skylab and Shuttle spaceflight participants.Multi-link suspension: __NOTOC__Intravascular ultrasoundFacet joint injection: Facet joint injections are used to alleviate symptoms of facet joint syndrome.Facet Joint SyndromeLordosisSpinal fracturePeripheral nerve injury classification: Classification of peripheral nerve injury assists in prognosis and determination of treatment strategy. Classification of nerve injury was described by Seddon in 1943 and by Sunderland in 1951.Angioplasty