Interbody fusion cage: An interbody fusion cage (colloquially known as a "spine cage") is a prosthesis used in spinal fusion procedures to maintain foraminal height and decompression. They are cylindrical or square-shaped devices, and usually threaded.Neuromere: Neuromeres are morphologically or molecularly defined transient segments of the early developing brain. Rhombomeres are such segments that make up the rhombencephalon or hindbrain.Scoliosis Research SocietyRehabilitation in spinal cord injury: When treating a person with a spinal cord injury, repairing the damage created by injury is the ultimate goal. By using a variety of treatments, greater improvements are achieved, and, therefore, treatment should not be limited to one method.Cervical spine disorder: Cervical Spine Disorders are illnesses that are relatively detrimental to ones physical health. These ailments exist in the cervical spine which is made up of the upper first seven vertebrae, encasing and shielding the Spinal cord.Harrington Meeting HouseDemineralized freeze dried bone allograft: Demineralized freeze dried bone allograft, referred to as DFDBA, is a bone graft material known for its [novo] bone formation properties.Bowers, GM, et al.Lipid bilayer fusion: In membrane biology, fusion is the process by which two initially distinct lipid bilayers merge their hydrophobic cores, resulting in one interconnected structure. If this fusion proceeds completely through both leaflets of both bilayers, an aqueous bridge is formed and the internal contents of the two structures can mix.Cell–cell fusogens: Cell–cell fusogens are glycoproteins that facilitate the fusion of cell to cell membranes. Cell-cell fusion is critical for the merging of gamete genomes and development of organs in multicelluar organisms.PseudarthrosisInguinal ligament: The inguinal ligament (Poupart's ligament) is a band running from the pubic tubercle to the anterior superior iliac spine. Its anatomy is very important for operating on hernia patients.Spinal stenosis: Spinal stenosis is an abnormal narrowing (stenosis) of the spinal canal that may occur in any of the regions of the spine. This narrowing causes a restriction to the spinal canal, resulting in a neurological deficit.LaminectomyClay-shoveler fracture: Clay-shoveler's fracture is a stable fracture through the spinous process of a vertebra occurring at any of the lower cervical or upper thoracic vertebrae, classically at C6 or C7. In Australia in the 1930s, men digging deep ditches tossed clay 10 to 15 feet above their heads using long handled shovels.Herbert screw: The Herbert screw (invented by Timothy Herbert) is a variable pitch cannulated screw typically made from titanium for its stainless properties as the screw is normally intended to remain in the patient indefinitely. It became generally available in 1978.SpondylolisthesisBone graftingCeramicCurrarino syndrome: The Currarino syndrome (also Currarino triad) is an inherited congenital disorder where (1) the sacrum (the fused vertebrae forming the back of the pelvis) is not formed properly, (2) there is a mass in the presacral space in front of the sacrum, and (3) there are malformations of the anus or rectum. It can also cause an anterior meningocele or a presacral teratoma.SpondylosisPars interarticularisLumbar disc disease: Lumbar disc disease is the drying out of the spongy interior matrix of an intervertebral disc in the spine. Many physicians and patients use the term lumbar disc disease to encompass several different causes of back pain or sciatica.Superior cluneal nerves: The superior cluneal nerves innervate the skin of the upper part of the buttocks. They are the terminal ends of lateral rami of the posterior rami of lumbar spinal nerves (L1, 2, 3).Canine degenerative myelopathy: Canine degenerative myelopathy, also known as chronic degenerative radiculomyelopathy, is an incurable, progressive disease of the canine spinal cord that is similar in many ways to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Onset is typically after the age of 7 years and it is seen most frequently in the German shepherd dog, Pembroke Welsh corgi, and boxer dog, though the disorder is strongly associated with a gene mutation in SOD1 that has been found in 43 breeds as of 2008, including the wire fox terrier, Chesapeake Bay retriever, Rhodesian ridgeback, and Cardigan Welsh corgi.Spinal anaesthesia: Spinal anaesthesia (or spinal anesthesia), also called spinal analgesia, spinal block or subarachnoid block (SAB), is a form of regional anaesthesia involving injection of a local anaesthetic into the subarachnoid space, generally through a fine needle, usually 9 cm long (3.5 inches).Intervertebral disc damage and spaceflight: Astronauts have expressed an increased incidence of back pain during spaceflight and herniated intervertebral discs (IVD) have been diagnosed upon return of Skylab and Shuttle spaceflight participants.Cervical fractureCamptocormia: CamptocormiaSacral anterior root stimulator: An implantable medical device enabling patients with a spinal cord lesion to empty their bladders.Spinal tumorSpinal decompression: Spinal decompression is the relief of pressure on one or many pinched nerves (neural impingement) of the spinal column.Low back painOssificationOctacalcium phosphateEML4-ALK positive lung cancer: EML4-ALK positive lung cancer is a medical term that refers to a primary malignant lung tumor whose cells contain a characteristic abnormal configuration of DNA wherein the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) gene is fused to the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene. This abnormal gene fusion leads to the production of a protein (EML4-ALK) that appears, in many cases, to promote and maintain the malignant behavior of the cancer cells.Spinal fracturePain scale: A pain scale measures a patient's pain intensity or other features. Pain scales are based on self-report, observational (behavioral), or physiological data.DiscectomyTitanium nitridePeripheral nerve injury classification: Classification of peripheral nerve injury assists in prognosis and determination of treatment strategy. Classification of nerve injury was described by Seddon in 1943 and by Sunderland in 1951.Infiltration analgesia: Infiltration analgesia is deposition of an analgesic drug close to the apex of a tooth so that it can diffuse to reach the nerve entering the apical foramina.Revision using distal inflow: Revision Using Distal Inflow (RUDI) is a surgical treatment for Dialysis-associated Steal Syndrome.Congenital distal spinal muscular atrophy: Congenital distal spinal muscular atrophy (congenital dSMA) is a hereditary genetic condition characterized by muscle wasting (atrophy), particularly of distal muscles in legs and hands, and by early-onset contractures (permanent shortening of a muscle or joint) of the hip, knee, and ankle. Affected individuals often have shorter lower limbs relative to the trunk and upper limbs.Degenerative disc diseaseBoston brace: The Boston brace, a type of thoraco-lumbo-sacral-orthosis (TLSO), is a back brace used primarily for the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis in children. It was developed in 1972 by John Hall and William Miller at the Boston Children's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts.Sensory stimulation therapy: Sensory stimulation therapy (SST) is an experimental therapy that aims to utilize neural plasticity mechanisms to aid in the recovery of somatosensory function after stroke or cognitive ageing. Stroke and cognitive ageing are well known sources of cognitive loss, the former by neuronal death, the later by weakening of neural connections.International Disability and Development Consortium: The International Disability and Development Consortium (IDDC) is a global consortium of disability and development related organisations. The aim of IDDC is to promote inclusive development internationally, with a special focus on promoting human rights for all disabled people living in economically poor communities in lower and middle-income countries.Bioresorbable stents: In medicine, a stent is any device which is inserted into a blood vessel or other internal duct in order to expand the vessel to prevent or alleviate a blockage. Traditionally, such devices are fabricated from metal mesh and remain in the body permanently or until removed through further surgical intervention.Fields' disease: Fields' disease is considered to be one of the rarest known diseases in the world, with only two diagnosed cases in history. It is named after Welsh twins Catherine and Kirstie Fields.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingTraction substation: A traction substation or traction current converter plant is an electrical substation that converts electric power from the form provided by the electrical power industry for public utility service to an appropriate voltage, current type and frequency to supply railways, trams (streetcars) or trolleybuses with traction current.X-ray microtomography: X-ray microtomography, like tomography and x-ray computed tomography, uses x-rays to create cross-sections of a physical object that can be used to recreate a virtual model (3D model) without destroying the original object. The prefix micro- (symbol: µ) is used to indicate that the pixel sizes of the cross-sections are in the micrometre range.Coles PhillipsRenshaw cell: Renshaw cells are inhibitory interneurons found in the gray matter of the spinal cord, and are associated in two ways with an alpha motor neuron.St. Mary's Orthopaedic Hospital: St. Mary's Orthopaedic Hospital is a publichttp://www.List of people with paraplegia: This is a list of people who have or had paraplegia.A. Hari ReddiExon skipping: In molecular biology, exon skipping is a form of RNA splicing used to cause cells to “skip” over faulty or misaligned sections of genetic code, leading to a truncated but still functional protein despite the genetic mutation.Mechanochemistry: Mechanochemistry or mechanical chemistry is the coupling of mechanical and chemical phenomena on a molecular scale and includes mechanical breakage, chemical behaviour of mechanically stressed solids (e.g.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.