Spermiogenesis: Spermiogenesis is the final stage of spermatogenesis, which sees the maturation of spermatids into mature, motile spermatozoa. The spermatid is more or less circular cell containing a nucleus, Golgi apparatus, centriole and mitochondria.Hyperactivation: Hyperactivation is a type of sperm motility. Hyperactivated sperm motility is characterised by a high amplitude, asymmetrical beating pattern of the sperm tail (flagellum).Epididymis: The epididymis (; plural: epididymides or ) is a tube that connects a testicle to a vas deferens in the male reproductive system. It is present in all male reptiles, birds, and mammals.Hook protein: HOOK is a family of evolutionarily related proteins.Acrosome: The acrosome is an organelle that develops over the anterior half of the head in the spermatozoa (sperm cells) of many animals. It is a cap-like structure derived from the Golgi apparatus.Semen quality: Semen quality is a measure of the ability of semen to accomplish fertilization. Thus, it is a measure of fertility in a man.Retrograde ejaculationOvarian tissue cryopreservation: Ovarian tissue cryopreservation is cryopreservation of tissue of the ovary of a female.Male infertilitySperm: Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed"). In the types of sexual reproduction known as anisogamy and its subtype oogamy, there is a marked difference in the size of the gametes with the smaller one being termed the "male" or sperm cell.Blood–testis barrier: The blood–testis barrier is a physical barrier between the blood vessels and the seminiferous tubules of the animal testes. The name "blood-testis barrier" is misleading in that it is not a blood-organ barrier in a strict sense, but is formed between Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubule and as such isolates the further developed stages of germ cells from the blood.Gastrocopta pellucida: Gastrocopta pellucida is a species of minute air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk or micromollusk in the family Vertiginidae, the vertigo snails.FNA Mapping: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology has been used to examine pathological human tissue from various organs for over 100 years.,Posner C.Natural cycle in vitro fertilization: Natural Cycle IVF is in vitro fertilisation (IVF) using either of the following procedures:Cryoprotectant: A cryoprotectant is a substance used to protect biological tissue from freezing damage (i.e.Acrosin: Acrosin is a digestive enzyme that acts as a protease. In humans, acrosin is encoded by the ACR gene.Spermatid: The spermatid is the haploid male gametid that results from division of secondary spermatocytes. As a result of meiosis, each spermatid contains only half of the genetic material present in the original primary spermatocyte.Low Fertility Cohorts Study: The Low Fertility Cohorts Study, 1978: A Survey of White, Ever-Married Women Belonging to the 1901-1910 United States Birth Cohorts,Data Sharing For Demographic Research consists of personal interviews of white, ever-married women born between July 1, 1900, and June 30, 1910. In 1978, a national survey of 1,049 married women between the ages of 68 and 78 were interviewed between the months of March and July in order to investigate low fertility during the 1920s and 1930s and the women of childbearing age during those decades.HalohydrinReproductive technology: Reproductive technology (RT) encompasses all current and anticipated uses of technology in human and animal reproduction, including assisted reproductive technology, contraception and others.Fallopian tube obstructionChlortetracyclineNick translation: Nick translationCAP protein family: In molecular biology, the CAP protein family (cysteine-rich secretory proteins, antigen 5, and pathogenesis-related 1 proteins (CAP)) is a large family of proteins that are found in a wide range of organisms, including prokaryotes and non-vertebrate eukaryotes. The nine subfamilies of the mammalian CAP 'super'family include: the human glioma pathogenesis-related 1 (GLIPR1), Golgi associated pathogenesis related-1 (GAPR1) proteins, peptidase inhibitor 15 (PI15), peptidase inhibitor 16 (PI16), cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs), CRISP LCCL domain containing 1 (CRISPLD1), CRISP LCCL domain containing 2 (CRISPLD2), mannose receptor like and the R3H domain containing like proteins.Oocyte selection: Oocyte selection is a procedure that is performed prior to in vitro fertilization, in order to use oocytes with maximal chances of resulting in pregnancy. In contrast, embryo selection takes place after fertilization.PolyvinylpyrrolidoneSubtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine: Antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production in the United States and around the world. They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion.Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Protamine sulfate: Protamine sulfate is a drug that reverses the anticoagulant effects of heparin by binding to it.Vasectomy: Table 26–1 = Table 3–2 Percentage of women experiencing an unintended pregnancy during the first year of typical use and the first year of perfect use of contraception, and the percentage continuing use at the end of the first year. United States.PCDHY: PCDH11Y is a gene unique to human males which competes with FOXP2 for the title of the "language gene." PCDH11Y is the gene for making Protocadherin 11Y, a protein that guides the development of nerve cells.Xueren: Xueren (English: The ScholarThe Scholar was the translation preferred by the editors of Xueren, appearing thus in their journal, but the title is sometimes also translated Scholars.) was an influential Chinese independent intellectual journal that ran from 1991 to 2000.Liquid nitrogen vehicle: A liquid nitrogen vehicle is powered by liquid nitrogen, which is stored in a tank. Traditional nitrogen engine designs work by heating the liquid nitrogen in a heat exchanger, extracting heat from the ambient air and using the resulting pressurized gas to operate a piston or rotary motor.Cervical mucus plug: A cervical mucus plug (operculum) is a plug that fills and seals the cervical canal during pregnancy. It is formed by a small amount of cervical mucus.Golden Globe Award for Best Original Score: The Golden Globe Award for Best Original Score is one of several categories presented by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association (HFPA), an organization of journalists who cover the United States film industry, but are affiliated with publications outside North America, since its institution in 1947. Since the 5th Golden Globe Awards (1947), the award is presented annually, except from 1953 to 1958.Embryo transfer: Embryo transfer refers to a step in the process of assisted reproduction in which embryos are placed into the uterus of a female with the intent to establish a pregnancy. This technique (which is often used in connection with in vitro fertilization (IVF)), may be used in humans or in animals, in which situations the goals may vary.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Rete tubular ectasia: Rete tubular ectasia is a benign condition, usually found in older men, involving numerous small, tubular cystic structures within the rete testis.Sarah R, Lotfi: Sarah R. Lotfi (b.Vitelline membrane outer layer protein I (VMO-I): In molecular biology, this entry refers to a protein domain called, the Vitelline membrane outer layer protein I (VMO-I). It is a structure found on the outside of an egg, in the vitelline membrane.Cell membraneLow-voltage electron microscope: Low-voltage electron microscope (LVEM) is an electron microscope which operates at accelerating voltages of a few kiloelectronvolts or less. While the low voltage electron microscopy technique will never replace conventional high voltage electron microscopes, it is quickly becoming appreciated for many different disciplines.Immunoglobulin Y: Immunoglobulin Y (abbreviated as IgY) is a type of immunoglobulin which is the major antibody in bird, reptile, and lungfish blood. It is also found in high concentrations in chicken egg yolk.Baby hamster kidney cell: Baby Hamster Kidney fibroblasts (aka BHK cells) are an adherent cell line used in molecular biology.Seminiferous tubule: Seminiferous tubules are located within the testes, and are the specific location of meiosis, and the subsequent creation of male gametes, namely spermatozoa.Polysomy: Polysomy is a condition found in many species, including fungi, plants, insects, and mammals, in which an organism has at least one more chromosome than normal, i.e.Bandicoot papillomatosis carcinomatosis virus: Bandicoot papillomatosis carcinomatosis virus is a circular double stranded DNA virus isolated from bandicoots (Perameles bougainville). The genome has features similar to both the Papillomaviridae and the Polyomaviridae.Corriedale: Corriedale sheep are a dual purpose breed, meaning they are used both in the production of wool and meat. The Corriedale is the oldest of all the crossbred breeds, a Merino-Lincoln cross developed almost simultaneously in Australia and New ZealandStock Types, The Land, North Richmond, c.AcetylYou Yangs: The You Yangs are a series of granite ridges that rise to 364m (Flinders Peak) above the Werribee Plain approximately 55 km south-west of Melbourne and 22 km north-east of Geelong, in Victoria, Australia. The main ridge runs roughly north–south for about 9 km, with a lower extension running for about 15 km to the west.Inverted microscope: An inverted microscope is a microscope with its light source and condenser on the top, above the stage pointing down, while the objectives and turret are below the stage pointing up. It was invented in 1850 by J.Sea urchin injury: Sea urchin injuries are caused by contact with sea urchins, and are characterized by puncture wounds inflicted by the animal's brittle, fragile spines.DNA fragmentation: DNA fragmentation is the separation or breaking of DNA strands into pieces. It can be done intentionally by laboratory personnel or by cells, or can occur spontaneously.Artery to the ductus deferens: The artery to the ductus deferens (deferential artery) is an artery in males that provides blood to the ductus deferens.Live cell imaging: __NOTOC__Pregnancy rate: Pregnancy rate is the success rate for getting pregnant. It is the percentage of all attempts that leads to pregnancy, with attempts generally referring to menstrual cycles where insemination or any artificial equivalent is used, which may be simple artificial insemination (AI) or AI with additional in vitro fertilization.Canadian Thoroughbred Horse Society: The Canadian Thoroughbred Horse Society (CTHS) is an organization headquartered in Toronto, Canada that was founded in 1906 to assist Thoroughbred horse breeders. Since 1982, there have been provincial divisions in Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Saskatchewan.Maternal to zygotic transition: Maternal to zygotic transition (MZT) is the stage in embryonic development during which development comes under the exclusive control of the zygotic genome. This requires both zygotic genome activation (ZGA) and degradation of maternal products.Junctional epithelium: The junctional epithelium (JE) is that epithelium which lies at, and in health also defines, the base of the gingival sulcus. The probing depth of the gingival sulcus is measured by a calibrated periodontal probe.Male contraceptive: Male contraceptives are methods of preventing pregnancy that primarily involve the male physiology. The most common kinds of male contraception include condoms, withdrawal / pulling out, outercourse,http://www.Hydraulic fracturing proppants: A proppant is a solid material, typically sand, treated sand or man-made ceramic materials, designed to keep an induced hydraulic fracture open, during or following a fracturing treatment. It is added to a frac'ing fluid which may vary in composition depending on the type of fracturing used, and can be gel, foam or slickwater–based.Vaccine vial monitor: A vaccine vial monitor (VVM) is a thermochromic label put on vials containing vaccines which gives a visual indication of whether the vaccine has been kept at a temperature which preserves its potency. The labels were designed in response to the problem of delivering vaccines to developing countries where the cold chain is difficult to preserve, and where formerly vaccines were being rendered inactive and administered ineffectively due to their having been denatured by exposure to ambient temperature.Total internal reflection fluorescence microscope: A total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRFM) is a type of microscope with which a thin region of a specimen, usually less than 200 nm can be observed.Sertoli cell nodule: A Sertoli cell nodule, also Pick's adenoma, testicular tubular adenoma and tubular adenoma of the testis, is a benign proliferation of Sertoli cells that arises in association with cryptorchidism (undescended testis). They are not composed of a clonal cell population, i.Glycerol 3-phosphate: -glycerol 1-phosphate-glycerol 3-phosphate-α-glycerophosphate-α-phosphoglycerolCalcium signaling: Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors.