Solubility: Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent to form a solution of the solute in the solvent. The solubility of a substance fundamentally depends on the physical and chemical properties of the solute and solvent as well as on temperature, pressure and the pH of the solution.ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters is a peer-reviewed academic journal in the field of medicinal chemistry. Founded in 2009, this online journal is published monthly by the American Chemical Society.Outline of water: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to water:Inclusion compound: thumbnail|200px|Example of an inclusion complex consisting of a p-xylylenediammonium bound within a [[cucurbituril reported by Freeman in Acta. Crystallogr.Chronic solvent-induced encephalopathy: Chronic solvent induced encephalopathy (CSE) is a condition induced by long-term exposure to organic solvents, typically in the workplace, that lead to a wide variety of persisting sensorimotor polyneuropathies and neurobehavioral deficits even after solvent exposure has been removed. This syndrome can also be referred to as "psycho-organic syndrome", "organic solvent syndrome", "chronic painter's syndrome", "occupational solvent encephalopathy", "solvent intoxication", "toxic solvent syndrome", "painters disease", "psycho-organic syndrome", "chronic toxic encephalopathy", and "neurasthenic syndrome".International Pharmaceutical Excipients Council: International Pharmaceutical Excipients Council is a global organization founded in 1991 representing producers, suppliers, and end users of excipients. The body has three divisions in Europe, Japan, and the United States, each of which focuses on local regulations concerning the excipients market, as well as on new research and business practices.Differential scanning calorimetry: Differential scanning calorimetry or DSC is a thermoanalytical technique in which the difference in the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a sample and reference is measured as a function of temperature. Both the sample and reference are maintained at nearly the same temperature throughout the experiment.Supercooling: Supercooling, also known as undercooling, is the process of lowering the temperature of a liquid or a gas below its freezing point without it becoming a solid.Charged Aerosol Release Experiment: The Charged Aerosol Release Experiment also known as CARE, is a project run by NASA which will use a rocket to release dust in the upper atmosphere to form a dusty plasma in space. NASA plans to trigger cloud formation around the rocket's exhaust particles.Emulsion polymerization: Emulsion polymerization is a type of radical polymerization that usually starts with an emulsion incorporating water, monomer, and surfactant. The most common type of emulsion polymerization is an oil-in-water emulsion, in which droplets of monomer (the oil) are emulsified (with surfactants) in a continuous phase of water.First pass effect: The first-pass effect (also known as first-pass metabolism or presystemic metabolism) is a phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation. It is the fraction of drug lost during the process of absorption which is generally related to the liver and gut wall.PEGylationCoulter counter: 150px|thumb|right|The tip of the Coulter counter in a buffer solution, counting cells in solution.Alkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.List of pharmaceutical compound number prefixes: This list of pharmaceutical compound number prefixes details a pharmaceutical drug labeling standard. Pharmaceutical companies produce a large number of compounds, which cannot all be given names.PolyvinylpyrrolidoneDiffuse reflectance infrared fourier transform: Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS)C.-P.Hydroxyethyl methyl celluloseSodium pareth sulfate: Sodium pareth sulfate is a surfactant found in some detergent products such as hand or body washes, but not as commonly as other chemicals such as sodium laureth sulfate. It is produced similar to sodium laureth sulfate starting from synthetic fatty alcohols with 12 to 13 carbon atoms.Nventa Biopharmaceuticals CorporationMicelleOctanol: Octanols are 8-carbon alcohols. A simple and important member is 1-octanol, with an unbranched chain of carbons.Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.Polymer blend: A polymer blend or polymer mixture is a member of a class of materials analogous to metal alloys, in which at least two polymers are blended together to create a new material with different physical properties. Section 3.Powder diffraction: Powder diffraction is a scientific technique using X-ray, neutron, or electron diffraction on powder or microcrystalline samples for structural characterization of materials.B.GriseofulvinIlmeniteBrittlenessProtein engineering: Protein engineering is the process of developing useful or valuable proteins. It is a young discipline, with much research taking place into the understanding of protein folding and recognition for protein design principles.Nanoparticle: Nanoparticles are particles between 1 and 100 nanometers in size. In nanotechnology, a particle is defined as a small object that behaves as a whole unit with respect to its transport and properties.Hexagonal crystal system: In crystallography, the hexagonal crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems, the hexagonal lattice system is one of the 7 lattice systems, and the hexagonal crystal family is one of the 6 crystal families. They are closely related and often confused with each other, but they are not the same.LoteprednolKosmotropic: Co-solvents (in water solvent) are defined as kosmotropic (order-making) if they contribute to the stability and structure of water-water interactions. Kosmotropes cause water molecules to favorably interact, which also (in effect) stabilizes intramolecular interactions in macromolecules such as proteins.Powder coating: [Coating Aluminium Extrusions.jpg|thumb|right|Aluminium extrusions being powder coated]Living free-radical polymerization: Living free radical polymerization is a type of living polymerization where the active polymer chain end is a free radical. Several methods exist.Absorption (skin): Skin absorption is a route by which substances can enter the body through the skin. Along with inhalation, ingestion and injection, dermal absorption is a route of exposure for toxic substances and route of administration for medication.Neural drug delivery systems: Neural drug delivery is the next step beyond the basic addition of growth factors to nerve guidance conduits. Drug delivery systems allow the rate of growth factor release to be regulated over time, which is critical for creating an environment more closely representative of in vivo development environments.Ferrocene-containing dendrimersFood physical chemistry: Food physical chemistry is considered to be a branch of Food chemistryJohn M. de Man.Detergent: A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with "cleaning properties in dilute solutions." These substances are usually alkylbenzenesulfonates, a family of compounds that are similar to soap but are more soluble in hard water, because the polar sulfonate (of detergents) is less likely than the polar carboxyl (of soap) to bind to calcium and other ions found in hard water.Thermogravimetry: Thermogravimetry (also known by the acronym "TG"; alternative spellings include thermo-gravimetry and thermogravimmetry) is a branch of physical chemistry, materials research, and thermal analysis. It is based on continuous recording of mass changes of a sample of material, as a function of a combination of temperature with time, and additionally of pressure and gas composition.Standard enthalpy of formation: The standard enthalpy of formation or standard heat of formation of a compound is the change of enthalpy during the formation of 1 mole of the compound from its constituent elements, with all substances in their standard states at 1 atmosphere (1 atm or 101.3 kPa).TE buffer: TE buffer is a commonly used buffer solution in molecular biology, especially in procedures involving DNA, cDNA or RNA. "TE" is derived from its components: Tris, a common pH buffer, and EDTA, a molecule that chelates cations like Mg2+.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Asahi Health: Asahi (or Asahi Health) is a Finnish health exercise based on the eastern traditions of T'ai chi ch'uan, qigong, yiquan and yoga, with a western scientific viewpoint. Asahi is designed to suit everybody, regardless of physical condition or age.Penthrox inhaler: The Penthrox inhaler is a hand-held inhaler used for self-administration of methoxyflurane for pain relief. It is manufactured and marketed by Medical Developments International (Melbourne, Victoria, Australia),Ethyl groupSpin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame: Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame is the mechanism by which Mxy, the transverse component of the magnetization vector, exponentially decays towards its equilibrium value of zero, under the influence of a radio frequency (RF) field in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is characterized by the spin–lattice relaxation time constant in the rotating frame, T1ρ.Mooney viscometer: A mooney viscometer is an instrument used for measuring the mooney viscosity of a substance (mainly elastomers and rubbers).ACS Rubber Division Science & Technology Awards Invented by Melvin Mooney, it contains a rotating spindle and heated dies, the substance encloses and overflows the spindle and the mooney viscosity is calculated from the torque on the spindle.Sustained release dosage forms: Sustained release dosage forms are designed to release a drug at a predetermined rate in order to maintain a constant drug concentration for a specific period of time with minimum side effects. This can be achieved through a variety of formulations, including liposomes and drug-polymer conjugates (an example being hydrogels).Druglikeness: Druglikeness is a qualitative concept used in drug design for how "druglike" a substance is with respect to factors like bioavailability. It is estimated from the molecular structure before the substance is even synthesized and tested.Poly(methacrylic acid)Surface modification: Surface modification is the act of modifying the surface of a material by bringing physical, chemical or biological characteristics different from the ones originally found on the surface of a material.Prodrug: A prodrug is a medication or compound that, after administration, is metabolized (i.e.Poloxamer: Poloxamers are nonionic triblock copolymers composed of a central hydrophobic chain of polyoxypropylene (poly(propylene oxide)) flanked by two hydrophilic chains of polyoxyethylene (poly(ethylene oxide)). The word "poloxamer" was coined by the inventor, Irving Schmolka, who received the patent for these materials in 1973.AdsorptionMass diffusivity: Diffusivity or diffusion coefficient is a proportionality constant between the molar flux due to molecular diffusion and the gradient in the concentration of the species (or the driving force for diffusion). Diffusivity is encountered in Fick's law and numerous other equations of physical chemistry.Polysorbate: Polysorbates are a class of emulsifiers used in some pharmaceuticals and food preparation. They are often used in cosmetics to solubilize essential oils into water-based products.Propylene oxideField emission probesReaction coordinateColes PhillipsProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Knotted protein: Knotted proteins are proteins whose backbones entangle themselves in a knot. One can imagine pulling a protein chain from both termini, as though pulling a string from both ends.Effervescent tablet: Effervescent or carbon tablets are tablets which are designed to break in contact with water or another liquid, releasing carbon dioxide in the process.British Pharmacopeia 2003 Rapid breakdown often may cause the tablet to dissolve into a solution, and is also often followed by a froth.DimethylformamideHemoglobin D-PunjabSilicate: A silicate is a compound containing an anionic silicon compound. The great majority of silicates are oxides, but hexafluorosilicate ([SiF6]2−) and other anions are also included.Phenol–chloroform extraction: Phenol–chloroform extraction is a liquid-liquid extraction technique in biochemistry and molecular biology for purifying nucleic acids and eliminating proteins. In brief, aqueous samples are mixed with equal volumes of a phenol:chloroform mixture.Isopropyl myristateSeparator (oil production): The term separator in oilfield terminology designates a pressure vessel used for separating well fluids produced from oil and gas wells into gaseous and liquid components. A separator for petroleum production is a large vessel designed to separate production fluids into their constituent components of oil, gas and water.Desiccation tolerance: Desiccation tolerance refers to the ability of an organism to withstand or endure extreme dryness, or drought-like conditions. Plants and animals living in arid or periodically arid environments such as temporary streams or ponds may face the challenge of desiccation, therefore physiological or behavioral adaptations to withstand these periods are necessary to ensure survival.Margaret Jope: Margaret Jope (1913–2004) was a Scottish biochemist, born as Henrietta Margaret Halliday in Peterhead, Scotland.High-performance liquid chromatography: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; formerly referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify, and quantify each component in a mixture. It relies on pumps to pass a pressurized liquid solvent containing the sample mixture through a column filled with a solid adsorbent material.