Fractional sodium excretion: The fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) is the percentage of the sodium filtered by the kidney which is excreted in the urine. It is measured in terms of plasma and urine sodium, rather than by the interpretation of urinary sodium concentration alone, as urinary sodium concentrations can vary with water reabsorption.Sodium channel: Sodium channels are integral membrane proteins that form ion channels, conducting sodium ions (Na+) through a cell's plasma membrane. They are classified according to the trigger that opens the channel for such ions, i.Salt and cardiovascular disease: Salt consumption has been intensely studied for its role in human physiology and impact on human health. In particular, excessive dietary salt consumption over an extended period of time has been associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease, in addition to other adverse health effects.Halotolerance: Halotolerance is the adaptation of living organisms to conditions of high salinity.Walter Larcher, 2001 Halotolerant species tend to live in areas such as hypersaline lakes, coastal dunes, saline deserts, salt marshes, and inland salt seas and springs.Potassium lauryl sulfateIntravenous sodium bicarbonateMyosmineDisodium guanylateSodium hypochlorite: In dilution:Trans-tubular potassium gradient: The trans-tubular potassium gradient (TTKG) is an index reflecting the conservation of potassium in the cortical collecting ducts (CCD) of the kidneys. It is useful in diagnosing the causes of hyperkalemia or hypokalemia.NargenicinLow sodium diet: A low sodium diet is a diet that includes no more than 1,500 to 2,400 mg of sodium per day.Heart Failure Society of America, How to follow a low sodium dietSodium seleniteSodium nitroprussideUrinary index: The urinary indices are the fractional sodium excretion (FENa) index and the renal failure index (RFI).Soda lime: Soda lime is a mixture of chemicals, used in granular form in closed breathing environments, such as general anaesthesia, submarines, rebreathers and recompression chambers, to remove carbon dioxide from breathing gases to prevent CO2 retention and carbon dioxide poisoning.Molar mass distribution: In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value. The molar mass distribution (or molecular weight distribution) in a polymer describes the relationship between the number of moles of each polymer species (Ni) and the molar mass (Mi) of that species.Margaret Jope: Margaret Jope (1913–2004) was a Scottish biochemist, born as Henrietta Margaret Halliday in Peterhead, Scotland.Kidney: The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates. They remove excess organic molecules from the blood, and it is by this action that their best-known function is performed: the removal of waste products of metabolism.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Nav1.5: NaV1.5 is an integral membrane protein and tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel subunit.Osmoregulation: Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of an organism's fluids to maintain the homeostasis of the organism's water content; that is, it keeps the organism's fluids from becoming too diluted or too concentrated. Osmotic pressure is a measure of the tendency of water to move into one solution from another by osmosis.Aldosterone escape: In physiology, aldosterone escape is a term that has been used to refer to two distinct phenomena involving aldosterone that are exactly opposite each other:Sunkist (soft drink): Sunkist is a brand of primarily orange flavored soft drinks launched in 1979.Sodium aurothiomalateSodium cyanideAlkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Reversal potential: In a biological membrane, the reversal potential (also known as the Nernst potential) of an ion is the membrane potential at which there is no net (overall) flow of that particular ion from one side of the membrane to the other. In the case of post-synaptic neurons, the reversal potential is the membrane potential at which a given neurotransmitter causes no net current flow of ions through that neurotransmitter receptor's ion channel.Sodium butyrateTranscellular transport: Transcellular transport involves the transportation of solutes by a cell through a cell. One classic example is the movement of glucose from the intestinal lumen to extracellular fluid by epithelial cells.Lithium (medication)Aortic pressure: Central aortic blood pressure (CAP or CASP) is the blood pressure at the root of aorta. Studies have shown the importance of central aortic pressure and its implications in assessing the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment with respect to cardiovascular risk factors.Indole-3-butyric acidHyponatremiaGHB receptor: The γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) receptor (GHBR), originally identified as GPR172A, is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that binds the neurotransmitter and psychoactive drug γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB).SaxitoxinSalting in: Salting in refers to the effect where increasing the ionic strength of a solution increases the solubility of some solute (such as a protein). This effect tends to be observed at lower ionic strengths.HyperchloremiaTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingPolyelectrolyteConcentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Renin: Renin, Iran}}HypernatremiaMediated transportHypertensionBatrachotoxinNew Zealand rabbitStretch-activated ion channel: Stretch-activated or stretch-gated ion channels are ion channels which open their pores in response to mechanical deformation of a neuron's plasma membrane. Also see mechanosensitive ion channels and mechanosensitive channels, with which they may be synonymous.Calcium signaling: Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors.Kennel clubProteinogenic amino acid: Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are precursors to proteins, and are incorporated into proteins cotranslationally — that is, during translation. There are 23 proteinogenic amino acids in prokaryotes (including N-Formylmethionine, mainly used to initiate protein synthesis and often removed afterward), but only 21 are encoded by the nuclear genes of eukaryotes.Croscarmellose sodium: Croscarmellose sodium is an internally cross-linked sodium carboxymethylcellulose for use as a superdisintegrant in pharmaceutical formulations.Coles PhillipsOutline of water: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to water:Periodic current reversalProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Hemiphractidae: The Hemiphractidae are a family of frogs from South and Central America. Previously, this group had been classified as a subfamily (Hemiphractinae) under family Hylidae.Loop diureticPatch clamp: The patch clamp technique is a laboratory technique in electrophysiology that allows the study of single or multiple ion channels in cells. The technique can be applied to a wide variety of cells, but is especially useful in the study of excitable cells such as neurons, cardiomyocytes, muscle fibers, and pancreatic beta cells.Cell membraneElectroneutral cation-Cl: In molecular biology, the electroneutral cation-Cl (electroneutral potassium-chloride cotransporter) family of proteins are a family of solute carrier proteins. This family includes the products of the Human genes: SLC12A1, SLC12A1, SLC12A2, SLC12A3, SLC12A4, SLC12A5, SLC12A6, SLC12A7, SLC12A8 and SLC12A9.Lidocaine: lignocaineVentricular action potentialSodium sulfite