Direct agglutination test: A direct agglutination test (DAT) is any test that uses whole organisms as a means of looking for serum antibodies. The abbreviation, DAT, is most frequently used for the serological test for visceral leishmaniasis.PerosamineQuellung reaction: The Quellung reaction is a biochemical reaction in which antibodies bind to the bacterial capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Page 340 Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. The antibody reaction allows these species to be visualized under a microscope.CampylobacteriosisPulsenet: PulseNet is a network run by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) which brings together public health and food regulatory agency laboratories around the United States.http://www.Thermal cyclerCampylobacter concisus: Campylobacter concisus is a Gram-negative, spiral, and microaerophilic bacteria. Motile, with either unipolar or bipolar flagella, the organisms have a characteristic spiral/corkscrew appearance and are oxidase-positive.Multiplex polymerase chain reaction: Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (Multiplex PCR) refers to the use of polymerase chain reaction to amplify several different DNA sequences simultaneously (as if performing many separate PCR reactions all together in one reaction). This process amplifies DNA in samples using multiple primers and a temperature-mediated DNA polymerase in a thermal cycler.Campylobacter jejuni: Campylobacter jejuni is a species of bacterium commonly found in animal feces. It is curved, helical-shaped, non-spore forming, Gram-negative, and microaerophilic.Bacterial capsule: The cell capsule is a very large structure of some prokaryotic cells, such as bacterial cells. It is a polysaccharide layer that lies outside the cell envelope of bacteria, and is thus deemed part of the outer envelope of a bacterial cell.George Albert II, Margrave of BrandenburgStreptococcus agalactiae: Streptococcus agalactiae (also known as Group B streptococcus or GBS) is a gram-positive coccus with a tendency to form chains (streptococcus), beta-hemolytic, catalase-negative, and facultative anaerobe. Streptococcus agalactiae is the species designation for streptococci belonging to the group B of the Rebecca Lancefield classification.Amplified fragment length polymorphismPasteurella multocida: Pasteurella multocida is a Gram-negative, nonmotile, penicillin-sensitive coccobacillus belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family. Strains belonging to the species are currently classified into five serogroups (A, B, D, E, F) based on capsular composition and 16 somatic serovars (1-16).Cutaneous group B streptococcal infection: Cutaneous group B streptococcal infection may result in orbital cellulitis or facial erysipelas in neonates.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Bismuth sulfite agar: Bismuth sulfite agar is a type of agar media used to isolate Salmonella species. It uses glucose as a primary source of carbon.Campylobacter coli: Campylobacter coli is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic, non-endospore forming, S-shaped bacterial species within genus Campylobacter.Lansing M.Neisseria meningitidis: Neisseria meningitidis, often referred to as meningococcus, is a gram negative bacterium that can cause meningitis and other forms of meningococcal disease such as meningococcemia, a life-threatening sepsis. The bacterium is referred to as a coccus because it is round, and more specifically, diplococcus because of its tendency to form pairs.Red cell agglutination: In haematology, red cell agglutination is the process whereby red cells clump together forming aggregates. This is seen in Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, cold agglutinin disease and Infection with Mycoplasma Pneumonia.HaeIII: HaeIII is one of many restriction enzymes (endonucleases) discovered since 1970. It was the third endonuclease to be isolated from the Haemophilus aegyptius bacteria, and has a molecular weight of 37126.Hemagglutination assay: The hemagglutination assay (or haemagglutination assay; HA) and the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI) were developed in 1941–42 by American virologist George Hirst as methods for quantitating the relative concentration of viruses, bacteria, or antibodies.Klebsiella terrigena: Klebsiella terrigena is a Gram-negative bacterial species of the genus Klebsiella. It has primarily been isolated from soil and water samples, but rarely from humans.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Elli ParvoLatex fixation test: The latex agglutination method is used clinically in the identification and typing of many important microorganisms. These tests are based on and utilize the patient's antigen-antibody immune response.Monoclonal antibody therapyRotavirus: Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhoea among infants and young children. It is a genus of double-stranded RNA virus in the family Reoviridae.Coles PhillipsNeisseria gonorrhoeae: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococci (plural), or gonococcus (singular), is a species of Gram-negative coffee bean-shaped diplococci bacteria responsible for the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea.Congenital chloride diarrhea: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD, also congenital chloridorrhea or Darrow Gamble syndrome) is a genetic disorder due to an autosomal recessive mutation on chromosome 7. The mutation is in downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA), a gene that encodes a membrane protein of intestinal cells.Ureaplasma infection: Ureaplasma infection is an infection by two species in the genus Ureaplasma, Infections caused Ureaplasma urealyticum are more common than infections caused by Ureaplasma parvum. Ureaplama infection is a sexually transmitted infection.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: A laboratory technique used to evaluate the binding of an antibody to its antigen. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis is similar to immunodiffusion, but with the addition of an applied electrical field across the diffusion medium, usually an agar or polyacrylamide gel.Polysaccharide encapsulated bacteriaRAPD: RAPD (pronounced "rapid") stands for 'Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA'. It is a type of PCR reaction, but the segments of DNA that are amplified are random.Parrot (disambiguation)EnteritisViral gastroenteritis: Viral gastroenteritis (Gastro-Enter-eye,tiss),http://www.merriam-webster.Pneumococcal vaccine: A pneumococcal vaccine is a vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae.Providencia stuartii: Providencia stuartii (commonly P. stuartii), is a Gram negative bacterium that is commonly found in soil, water, and sewage.Enteroinvasive Escherichia coliEva Engvall: Eva Engvall, born 1940, is one of the scientists who invented ELISA in 1971.Eva Engvall, The Scientist 1995, 9(18):8Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae: Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a Gram-positive, catalase-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming, non-acid-fast, non-motile bacterium. The organism was first established as a human pathogen late in the nineteenth century.Bacterial outer membraneBacitracinResistome: The resistome is a proposed expression by Gerard D. Wright for the collection of all the antibiotic resistance genes and their precursors in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Bacillary dysenteryList of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Listeria monocytogenes: Listeria monocytogenes is the bacterium that causes the infection listeriosis. It is a facultative anaerobic bacterium, capable of surviving in the presence or absence of oxygen.Gonorrhea: Clap}}ATC code J07: ==J07A Bacterial vaccines==DNA/RNA non-specific endonuclease: In molecular biology, enzymes in the DNA/RNA non-specific endonuclease family of bacterial and eukaryotic endonucleases share the following characteristics: they act on both DNA and RNA, cleave double-stranded and single-stranded nucleic acids and require a divalent ion such as magnesium for their activity. A histidine has been shown to be essential for the activity of the Serratia marcescens nuclease.Gijs Kuenen: Johannes Gijsbrecht Kuenen (born 9 December 1940, Heemstede) is a Dutch microbiologist who is professor emeritus at the Delft University of Technology and a visiting scientist at the University of Southern California. His research is influenced by, and a contribution to, the scientific tradition of the Delft School of Microbiology.Trans-activating crRNA: In molecular biology, trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA) is a small trans-encoded RNA. It was first discovered in the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes.Genetic variation: right|thumbProteus vulgaris: Proteus vulgaris is a rod-shaped, nitrate-reducing, indole+ and catalase-positive, hydrogen sulfide-producing, Gram-negative bacterium that inhabits the intestinal tracts of humans and animals. It can be found in soil, water, and fecal matter.Enterovirus cis-acting replication elementRadial immunodiffusion: Radial immunodiffusion (RID) or Mancini method, Mancini immunodiffusion or single radial immunodiffusion assay, is an immunodiffusion technique used in immunology to determine the quantity or concentration of an antigen in a sample. Antibody is incorporated into a medium such as an agar gel.