Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test: The Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test (VDRL) is a blood test for syphilis that was developed by the eponymous lab. The VDRL test is used to screen for syphilis (it has high sensitivity), whereas other, more specific tests are used to diagnose the disease.Direct agglutination test: A direct agglutination test (DAT) is any test that uses whole organisms as a means of looking for serum antibodies. The abbreviation, DAT, is most frequently used for the serological test for visceral leishmaniasis.Eva Engvall: Eva Engvall, born 1940, is one of the scientists who invented ELISA in 1971.Eva Engvall, The Scientist 1995, 9(18):8History of syphilis: The history of syphilis has been well studied, but the exact origin of syphilis is unknown. There are two primary hypotheses: one proposes that syphilis was carried to Europe from the Americas by the crew of Christopher Columbus, the other proposes that syphilis previously existed in Europe but went unrecognized.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Hemagglutination assay: The hemagglutination assay (or haemagglutination assay; HA) and the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI) were developed in 1941–42 by American virologist George Hirst as methods for quantitating the relative concentration of viruses, bacteria, or antibodies.Brucellosis vaccinePorges-Meier reaction: Porges-Meier reaction is a precipitation test used in the diagnosis of syphilis.North Bengal Medical CollegeSeroconversionChagas: Time to Treat campaign: The Chagas: Time to Treat Campaign is an international campaign started by the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative to advocate for increased research and development of treatments for Chagas disease. Chagas is a potentially fatal neglected disease that affects between 8 and 13 million people worldwide.Prevalence: Prevalence in epidemiology is the proportion of a population found to have a condition (typically a disease or a risk factor such as smoking or seat-belt use). It is arrived at by comparing the number of people found to have the condition with the total number of people studied, and is usually expressed as a fraction, as a percentage or as the number of cases per 10,000 or 100,000 people.CD4 immunoadhesin: CD4 immunoadhesin is a recombinant fusion protein consisting of a combination of CD4 and the fragment crystallizable region.Congenital syphilisBioline Reagents: Bioline Reagents is a primary manufacturer and developerBioline: The PCR Company | Company Profile of a wide range of specialised molecular biology products for the life science industry and research markets. It manufactures reagents including ultra-pure nucleotides, DNA polymerases and mixes, DNA markers, competent cells, products for RNA analysis and other general reagents for molecular biology.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: A laboratory technique used to evaluate the binding of an antibody to its antigen. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis is similar to immunodiffusion, but with the addition of an applied electrical field across the diffusion medium, usually an agar or polyacrylamide gel.Radial immunodiffusion: Radial immunodiffusion (RID) or Mancini method, Mancini immunodiffusion or single radial immunodiffusion assay, is an immunodiffusion technique used in immunology to determine the quantity or concentration of an antigen in a sample. Antibody is incorporated into a medium such as an agar gel.Trypanosoma: Trypanosoma is a genus of kinetoplastids (class Kinetoplastida), a monophyletic group of unicellular parasitic flagellate protozoa. The name is derived from the Greek trypano- (borer) and soma (body) because of their corkscrew-like motion.Latex fixation test: The latex agglutination method is used clinically in the identification and typing of many important microorganisms. These tests are based on and utilize the patient's antigen-antibody immune response.Seroprevalence: Seroprevalence is the number of persons in a population who test positive for a specific disease based on serology (blood serum) specimens; often presented as a percent of the total specimens tested or as a proportion per 100,000 persons tested. As positively identifying the occurrence of disease is usually based upon the presence of antibodies for that disease (especially with viral infections such as Herpes Simplex and HIV), this number is not significant if the specificity of the antibody is low.Lyme disease microbiology: Lyme disease, or borreliosis, is caused by spirochetal bacteria from the genus Borrelia, which has at least 37 known species, 12 of which are Lyme related, and an unknown number of genomic strains. Borrelia species known to cause Lyme disease are collectively known as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay: The Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (also called TPPA test) is an indirect agglutination assay used for detection and titration of antibodies against the causative agent of syphilis, Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.Nontreponemal tests for syphilis: Nontreponemal test refers an indirect method of blood test for diagnosis of infection with syphilis. Nontreponemal Tests detect biomarkers that are released during cellular damage that occurs from the syphilis spirochete.Primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis: Primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis is an infection caused by inhalation of Coccidioides immitis. Once pulmonary symptoms subside, about 30% of women and 15% of men will have allergic skin manifestations in the form of erythema nodosum.Brucella melitensis: Brucella melitensis is a gram negative coccobacillus bacteria from the Brucellaceae family. The bacterium causes Ovine Brucellosis, along with Brucella ovis.Wolverine and the X-Men (toyline): The Wolverine and the X-Men toyline is a 3¾" action figure line manufactured by Hasbro. It is a tie-in to the Wolverine and the X-Men animated series and was released alongside the Marvel Universe toyline and X-Men Origins: Wolverine toyline as part of Hasbro's new 3¾" figure initiative for Marvel Comics characters, although this line has a much more animated style than the other two lines.Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (also known as "Post-kala-azar dermatosis") is a cutaneous condition that is characterized by a macular, depigmented eruption found mainly on the face, arms, and upper part of the trunk. It occurs years(in the Indian variation)or a few months(in the African strain) after the successful treatment of visceral leishmaniasisThomas Zereske: Thomas Zereske (May 22, 1966 – June 28, 2004) profile.Cat Scratch Fever (song): "Cat Scratch Fever" is a rock song by Ted Nugent that appears on the album of the same name. The song is well known for its signature riff, which is a 3-tone minor-key melody harmonized in parallel fourths.LeptospirosisTreponematosis: Treponematosis is a term used to collectively or individually describe any of the diseases caused by the bacterial species Treponema. There are four subspecies described which cause the following diseases:William Boog LeishmanBH11960: Bartonella henselae hypothetical protein 11960 (BH11960) is encoded by the BH11960 gene. This hypothetical protein is conserved in all Bartonella species whose genomes have been sequenced to date and are highlighted in the picture below.Stichosome: Stichosome (from Greek stichos (στίχος) = row; soma (σῶµα) = body) is a multicellular organ that is very prominent in some stages of nematodes and consists of a longitudinal series of glandular unicellular cells (stichocytes) arranged in a row along the oesophagus that form the posterior esophageal glands. It opens into the esophageal lumen and apparently functions as a secretory gland and storage organ.CagA: Helicobacter pylori virulence factor CagA (cytotoxin-associated gene A) is a 120–145kDa protein encoded on the 40kb cag pathogenicity island (PAI). H.Thermal cyclerOld German Shepherd Dog: Old German Shepherd Dog () is a controversial predicate for the long-hair variation of the German Shepherd Dog (), which is not a separate breed recognized by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale. Nonetheless, there are efforts to establish this variety as a separate breed.Xenodiagnosis: Xenodiagnosis is a diagnostic method used to document the presence of infectious disease microorganisms or pathogens by exposing possibly infected tissue to a vector and then examining the vector for the presence of the microorganisms or pathogens it may have ingested.Xenodiagnosis-Medical LexiconImmunoperoxidase: Immunoperoxidase is a type of immunostain used in molecular biology, medical research, and clinical diagnostics. In particular, immunoperoxidase reactions refer to a sub-class of immunohistochemical or immunocytochemical procedures in which the antibodies are visualized via a peroxidase-catalyzed reaction.Oat sensitivity: Oat sensitivity represents a sensitivity to the proteins found in oats, Avena sativa. Sensitivity to oatsMycoplasma pneumoniaEchinococcosisUniversity of CampinasMycoplasma pneumoniae: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a very small bacterium in the class Mollicutes.World Blood Donor Day: Every year on 14 June, countries around the world celebrate World Blood Donor Day (WBDD). The event, established in 2004, serves to raise awareness of the need for safe blood and blood products, and to thank blood donors for their voluntary, life-saving gifts of blood.SAG1 protein domain: In molecular biology, the SAG1 protein domain is an example of a group of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked proteins named SRSs (SAG1 related sequence). SAG1 is found on the surface of a protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii.BenznidazoleBeef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Mycoplasma haemofelis: Mycoplasma haemofelis (formerly Haemobartonella felis) is a gram negative epierythrocytic parasitic bacterium. It often appears in bloodsmears as small (0.Coombs test: A Coombs test (also known as Coombs' test, antiglobulin test or AGT) is either of two clinical blood tests used in immunohematology and immunology. The two Coombs tests are the direct Coombs test (DCT, also known as direct antiglobulin test or DAT), and the indirect Coombs test (also known as indirect antiglobulin test or IAT).Uncinocarpus: Uncinocarpus is a genus of fungi within the Onygenaceae family. Being a close non-pathogenic relative of the pathogenic dimorphic fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii, which causeAlveolar hydatid diseaseKlebsiella granulomatis: Klebsiella granulomatis is Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium of the genus Klebsiella known to cause the sexually transmitted disease granuloma inguinale (or donovanosis). It was called Calymmatobacterium granulomatis.Tape measure: A tape measure or measuring tape is a flexible ruler. It consists of a ribbon of cloth, plastic, fiber glass, or metal strip with linear-measurement markings.Immunoassay: An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a macromolecule in a solution through the use of an antibody or immunoglobulin. The macromolecule detected by the immunoassay is often referred to as an "analyte" and is in many cases a protein.Echinococcus: The genus Echinococcus includes six parasite species of cyclophyllid tapeworms to date, of the family Taeniidae. Infection with Echinococcus results in hydatid disease, also known as echinococcosis.LeprosyTheodor Bilharz Research Institute: The Theodor Bilharz Research Institute is located in Giza, Egypt.Benzathine benzylpenicillinPrimary and secondary antibodies: Primary and secondary antibodies are two groups of antibodies that are classified based on whether they bind to antigens or proteins directly or target another (primary) antibody that, in turn, is bound to an antigen or protein.Leishmania infantum: Leishmania infantum is the causative agent of infantile visceral leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean region of the Old World and in Latin America, where it has been called Leishmania chagasi. It is also an unusual cause of cutaneous leishmaniasis, which is normally caused by specific lineages (or zymodemes).