Clay-shoveler fracture: Clay-shoveler's fracture is a stable fracture through the spinous process of a vertebra occurring at any of the lower cervical or upper thoracic vertebrae, classically at C6 or C7. In Australia in the 1930s, men digging deep ditches tossed clay 10 to 15 feet above their heads using long handled shovels.Interbody fusion cage: An interbody fusion cage (colloquially known as a "spine cage") is a prosthesis used in spinal fusion procedures to maintain foraminal height and decompression. They are cylindrical or square-shaped devices, and usually threaded.Costovertebral angleHerbert screw: The Herbert screw (invented by Timothy Herbert) is a variable pitch cannulated screw typically made from titanium for its stainless properties as the screw is normally intended to remain in the patient indefinitely. It became generally available in 1978.LordosisSyringomyeliaMax Schede: Max Schede (January 7, 1844 – December 31, 1902) was a German surgeon born in Arnsberg.Camptocormia: CamptocormiaFields' disease: Fields' disease is considered to be one of the rarest known diseases in the world, with only two diagnosed cases in history. It is named after Welsh twins Catherine and Kirstie Fields.Traction substation: A traction substation or traction current converter plant is an electrical substation that converts electric power from the form provided by the electrical power industry for public utility service to an appropriate voltage, current type and frequency to supply railways, trams (streetcars) or trolleybuses with traction current.Arnold–Chiari malformationHolger Werfel Scheuermann: Holger Werfel Scheuermann (12 February 1877 – 3 March 1960) was a Danish surgeon after whom Scheuermann's disease is named.Multifidus muscle: The multifidus (multifidus spinae : pl. multifidi ) muscle consists of a number of fleshy and tendinous fasciculi, which fill up the groove on either side of the spinous processes of the vertebrae, from the sacrum to the axis.Photogrammetry: Photogrammetry is the science of making measurements from photographs, especially for recovering the exact positions of surface points. Moreover, it may be used to recover the motion pathways of designated reference points located on any moving object, on its components and in the immediately adjacent environment.Intervertebral disc damage and spaceflight: Astronauts have expressed an increased incidence of back pain during spaceflight and herniated intervertebral discs (IVD) have been diagnosed upon return of Skylab and Shuttle spaceflight participants.Riding-like sittingMedical radiographyDoxanthrine: Doxanthrine is a synthetic compound which is a potent and selective full agonist for the dopamine D1 receptor. Doxanthrine has been shown to be orally active in producing contralateral rotation in the 6-hydroxy-dopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease.Orthotics: Orthotics (Greek: Ορθός, ortho, "to straighten" or "align") is a specialty within the medical field concerned with the design, manufacture and application of orthoses. An orthosis (plural: orthoses) is "an externally applied device used to modify the structural and functional characteristics of the neuromuscular and skeletal system".PseudarthrosisResuscitative thoracotomy: A resuscitative thoracotomy (sometimes referred to as an emergency department thoracotomy or, colloquially, as "cracking the chest") is a thoracotomy typically done in order to resuscitate a person who has been severely injured after sustaining a severe trauma involving the thoracic cavity. For most persons with thoracic trauma the procedure is not necessary; only 15% of those with thoracic injury require the procedure.Exon skipping: In molecular biology, exon skipping is a form of RNA splicing used to cause cells to “skip” over faulty or misaligned sections of genetic code, leading to a truncated but still functional protein despite the genetic mutation.Mechanochemistry: Mechanochemistry or mechanical chemistry is the coupling of mechanical and chemical phenomena on a molecular scale and includes mechanical breakage, chemical behaviour of mechanically stressed solids (e.g.Conjugate gaze palsyCurrarino syndrome: The Currarino syndrome (also Currarino triad) is an inherited congenital disorder where (1) the sacrum (the fused vertebrae forming the back of the pelvis) is not formed properly, (2) there is a mass in the presacral space in front of the sacrum, and (3) there are malformations of the anus or rectum. It can also cause an anterior meningocele or a presacral teratoma.Cervical spine disorder: Cervical Spine Disorders are illnesses that are relatively detrimental to ones physical health. These ailments exist in the cervical spine which is made up of the upper first seven vertebrae, encasing and shielding the Spinal cord.Volume rendering: 250px|thumb| A volume rendered cadaver head using view-aligned [[texture mapping and diffuse reflection]]Musculoskeletal abnormalityErasmus Darwin Hudson, Jr.: Erasmus Darwin Hudson (10 November 1843, Northampton, Massachusetts - 9 May 1887, New York City) was a United States physician.Kirschner wireSpondylolisthesisDiastematomyeliaHip spica cast: A hip spica cast is a sort of orthopedic cast used to immobilize the hip or thigh. It is used to facilitate healing of injured hip joints or of fractured femurs.Gross Motor Function Classification System: The Gross Motor Function Classification System or GMFCS is a 5 level clinical classification system that describes the gross motor function of people with cerebral palsy on the basis of self-initiated movement abilities. Particular emphasis in creating and maintaining the GMFCS scale rests on evaluating sitting, walking, and wheeled mobility.Epicanthic fold: Epicanthic fold (), epicanthal fold, epicanthus, or simply eye fold are names for a skin fold of the upper eyelid, covering the inner corner (medial canthus) of the eye. Other names for this trait include plica palpebronasalis and palpebronasal fold..Parasitic twin: A parasitic twin (also known as an asymmetrical or unequal conjoined twin) is the result of the processes that also produce vanishing twins and conjoined twins, and may represent a continuum between the two. Parasitic twins occur when a twin embryo begins developing in utero, but the pair does not fully separate, and one embryo maintains dominant development at the expense of the other.Fibrous dysplasia of boneTumor progression: Tumor progression is the third and last phase in tumor development. This phase is characterised by increased growth speed and invasiveness of the tumor cells.HyperintensityOvarian torsionCongenital contractural arachnodactyly: Beals syndrome (congenital contractural arachnodactyly, Beals-Hecht syndrome) is a rare congenital connective tissue disorder. Beals syndrome has only recently been described as a syndrome distinct from Marfan's syndrome.Dense artery sign: In medicine, the dense artery sign or hyperdense artery sign is a radiologic sign seen on computer tomography (CT) scans suggestive of early ischemic stroke. In earlier studies of medical imaging in patients with strokes, it was the earliest sign of ischemic stroke in a significant minority of cases.F-15,599PinealocyteAicardi–Goutières syndromeOptoelectronic plethysmography: Optoelectronic plethysmography (OEP) is a method to evaluate ventilation through an external measurement of the chest wall surface motion.Berg Balance Scale: The Berg Balance Scale (or BBS) is a widely used clinical test of a person's static and dynamic balance abilities, named after Katherine Berg, one of the developers. For functional balance tests, the BBS is generally considered to be the gold standard.St. Mary's Orthopaedic Hospital: St. Mary's Orthopaedic Hospital is a publichttp://www.Genu varum: -, |Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is a type of thoracic surgery performed using a small video camera that is introduced into the patient's chest via a scope. The surgeon is able to view the instruments that are being used along with the anatomy on which the surgeon is operating.DiscectomyNeuronavigation: Neuronavigation is the set of computer-assisted technologies used by neurosurgeons to guide or "navigate” within the confines of the skull or vertebral column during surgery, and used by psychiatrists to accurately target rTMS (Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation). The set of hardware for these purposes is referred to as a neuronavigator.Degenerative disc diseaseGait (human): Human gait refers to locomotion achieved through the movement of human limbs. Human gait is defined as bipedal, biphasic forward propulsion of center of gravity of the human body, in which there are alternate sinuous movements of different segments of the body with least expenditure of energy.Neuromere: Neuromeres are morphologically or molecularly defined transient segments of the early developing brain. Rhombomeres are such segments that make up the rhombencephalon or hindbrain.Malformative syndrome: A malformative syndrome (or malformation syndrome) is a recognizable pattern of congenital anomalies that are known or thought to be causally related (VIIth International Congress on Human Genetics).Spinal decompression: Spinal decompression is the relief of pressure on one or many pinched nerves (neural impingement) of the spinal column.Haller ParkElectrodiagnosis: Electrodiagnosis is a method of obtaining information about diseases by passively recording the electrical activity of body parts or by measuring their response to external electrical stimulus.European Association of Cardiothoracic Surgery: The European Association of Cardiothoracic Surgery (EACTS) is a learned society devoted to the practice of cardiothoracic surgery. The main objects of the association are to advance education in the field of cardiovascular and thoracic surgery and to promote research in thoracic physiology, pathology, and therapy as well as to correlate and disseminate results.OphthalmoparesisBeta encoder: A beta encoder is an analog to digital conversion (A/D) system in which a real number in the unit interval is represented by a finite representation of a sequence in base beta, with beta being a real number between 1 and 2. Beta encoders are an alternative to traditional approaches to pulse code modulation.