Cryptic unstable transcript: Cryptic Unstable Transcripts (CUTs) are a subset of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that are produced from intergenic and intragenic regions. CUTs were first observed in S.YjdF RNA motifMature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Transfer-messenger RNA: Transfer-messenger RNA (abbreviated tmRNA, also known as 10Sa RNA and by its genetic name SsrA) is a bacterial RNA molecule with dual tRNA-like and messenger RNA-like properties. The tmRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein complex (tmRNP) together with Small Protein B (SmpB), Elongation Factor Tu (EF-Tu), and ribosomal protein S1.Three prime untranslated region: In molecular genetics, the three prime untranslated region (3'-UTR) is the section of messenger RNA (mRNA) that immediately follows the translation termination codon. An mRNA molecule is transcribed from the DNA sequence and is later translated into protein.RNA-binding protein database: The RNA-binding Proteins Database (RBPDB) is a biological database of RNA-binding protein specificities that includes experimental observations of RNA-binding sites. The experimental results included are both in vitro and in vivo from primary literature.Nucleic acid structure: Nucleic acid structure refers to the structure of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. Chemically speaking, DNA and RNA are very similar.Coles PhillipsRNAi-Based Identification System and interference of Specific Cancer Cells: A “classifier” was created to classify cells by identifying specific characteristics of Cervical Cancer. These characteristics were consistent with HeLa cells, which served as the target cell line for cell death.IscR stability element: The IscR stability element is a conserved secondary structure found in the intergenic regions of iscRSUA polycistronic mRNA. This secondary structure prevents the degradation of the iscR mRNA.Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element: The cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (CPE) is a sequence element found in the 3' untranslated region of messenger RNA. The most common CPE sequence is UUUUAU, though there are other variations.Eukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.Translational regulation: Translational regulation refers to the control of the levels of protein synthesized from its mRNA. The corresponding mechanisms are primarily targeted on the control of ribosome recruitment on the initiation codon, but can also involve modulation of the elongation or termination of protein synthesis.MT-RNR2: Mitochondrially encoded 16S RNA (often abbreviated as 16S) is a mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) that in humans is encoded by the MT-RNR2 gene. The MT-RNR2 gene also encodes the Humanin polypeptide that has been the target of Alzheimer's disease research.BentazepamExtension Poly(A) Test: The extension Poly(A) Test (ePAT) describes a method to determine the poly(A) tail lengths of mRNA molecules. It was developed and described by A.Core enzyme: A core enzyme consists of the subunits of an enzyme that are needed for catalytic activity, as in the core enzyme RNA polymerase.Genetics: Analysis & Principles, 3rd Edition.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Mycovirus: Mycoviruses (ancient Greek μύκης mykes: fungus and Latin virus) are viruses that infect fungi. The majority of mycoviruses have double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genomes and isometric particles, but approximately 30% have positive sense, single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) genomes.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.RNA interference: RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression, typically by causing the destruction of specific mRNA molecules. Historically, it was known by other names, including co-suppression, post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), and quelling.Ribonuclease L: Ribonuclease L or RNase L (for latent), known sometimes as ribonuclease 4 or 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase-dependent ribonuclease — is an interferon (IFN)-induced ribonuclease which, upon activation, destroys all RNA within the cell (both cellular and viral). RNase L is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RNASEL gene.Hairpin ribozymeTrypanosoma bruceiTranscription preinitiation complex: The preinitiation complex (abbreviated PIC) is a large complex of proteins that is necessary for the transcription of protein-coding genes in eukaryotes (+archaea). The preinitiation complex helps position RNA polymerase II over gene transcription start sites, denatures the DNA, and positions the DNA in the RNA polymerase II active site for transcription.Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Masayori Inouye: Masayori Inouye is a Japanese biochemist who, along with his team, discovered natural antisense RNA.Armitage–Doll multistage model of carcinogenesis: The Armitage–Doll model is a statistical model of carcinogenesis, proposed in 1954 by Peter Armitage and Richard Doll, which suggested that a sequence of multiple distinct genetic events preceded the onset of cancer. The original paper has recently been reprinted with a set of commentary articles.T-box leaderU6 spliceosomal RNAGC box: In molecular biology, a GC box is a distinct pattern of nucleotides found in the promoter region of some eukaryotic genes upstream of the TATA box and approximately 110 bases upstream from the transcription initiation site. It has a consensus sequence GGGCGG which is position dependent and orientation independent.Dark matter halo: A dark matter halo is a hypothetical component of a galaxy that envelops the galactic disc and extends well beyond the edge of the visible galaxy. The halo's mass dominates the total mass.RNA transfection: RNA transfection is the process of deliberately introducing RNA into a living cell. RNA can be purified from cells after lysis or synthesized from free nucleotides either chemically, or enzymatically using an RNA polymerase to transcribe a DNA template.Reaction coordinateStandard enthalpy of formation: The standard enthalpy of formation or standard heat of formation of a compound is the change of enthalpy during the formation of 1 mole of the compound from its constituent elements, with all substances in their standard states at 1 atmosphere (1 atm or 101.3 kPa).Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.Gene signature: A gene signature is a group of genes in a cell whose combined expression patternItadani H, Mizuarai S, Kotani H. Can systems biology understand pathway activation?Denaturation midpoint: Assuming two-state protein folding, denaturation midpoint is defined as that temperature (Tm) or denaturant concentration (Cm) at which both the folded and unfolded states are equally populated at equilibrium. Tm is often determined using a thermal shift assay.DExD/H box proteins: DEAD box, DEAH, and the Ski families of proteins are all referred to as DExD/H box proteins. They are all quite distinct from one another and there is not one protein that belongs to more than one of these families.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.FERM domain: In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.Knotted protein: Knotted proteins are proteins whose backbones entangle themselves in a knot. One can imagine pulling a protein chain from both termini, as though pulling a string from both ends.Database of protein conformational diversity: The Database of protein conformational diversity (PCDB) is a database of diversity of protein tertiary structures within protein domains as determined by X-ray crystallography. Proteins are inherently flexible and this database collects information on this subject for use in molecular research.Fishpaper: Fish paper or fishpaper is a strong, flexible, fibrous dielectric paper. It resists moderate heat and mechanical injury, and is often used for wrapping coils and insulating stove-top parts.X-ray magnetic circular dichroismLactis-leu-phe leader RNA motifTriparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.Hyperchromicity: Hyperchromicity is the increase of absorbance (optical density) of a material. The most famous example is the hyperchromicity of DNA that occurs when the DNA duplex is denatured.Satellite (biology): A satellite is a subviral agent composed of nucleic acid that depends on the co-infection of a host cell with a helper or master virus for its replication. When a satellite encodes the coat protein in which its nucleic acid is encapsidated it is referred to as a satellite virus.Ribonuclease T2: Ribonuclease T2 (, ribonuclease II, base-non-specific ribonuclease, nonbase-specific RNase, RNase (non-base specific), non-base specific ribonuclease, nonspecific RNase, RNase Ms, RNase M, RNase II, Escherichia coli ribonuclease II, ribonucleate nucleotido-2'-transferase (cyclizing), acid ribonuclease, RNAase CL, Escherichia coli ribonuclease I' ribonuclease PP2, ribonuclease N2, ribonuclease M, acid RNase, ribonnuclease (non-base specific), ribonuclease (non-base specific), RNase T2, ribonuclease PP3, ribonucleate 3'-oligonucleotide hydrolase, ribonuclease U4) is an enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction