RNAi-Based Identification System and interference of Specific Cancer Cells: A “classifier” was created to classify cells by identifying specific characteristics of Cervical Cancer. These characteristics were consistent with HeLa cells, which served as the target cell line for cell death.YjdF RNA motifRNA interference: RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression, typically by causing the destruction of specific mRNA molecules. Historically, it was known by other names, including co-suppression, post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), and quelling.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.MT-RNR2: Mitochondrially encoded 16S RNA (often abbreviated as 16S) is a mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) that in humans is encoded by the MT-RNR2 gene. The MT-RNR2 gene also encodes the Humanin polypeptide that has been the target of Alzheimer's disease research.Transfer-messenger RNA: Transfer-messenger RNA (abbreviated tmRNA, also known as 10Sa RNA and by its genetic name SsrA) is a bacterial RNA molecule with dual tRNA-like and messenger RNA-like properties. The tmRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein complex (tmRNP) together with Small Protein B (SmpB), Elongation Factor Tu (EF-Tu), and ribosomal protein S1.Core enzyme: A core enzyme consists of the subunits of an enzyme that are needed for catalytic activity, as in the core enzyme RNA polymerase.Genetics: Analysis & Principles, 3rd Edition.Coles PhillipsMycovirus: Mycoviruses (ancient Greek μύκης mykes: fungus and Latin virus) are viruses that infect fungi. The majority of mycoviruses have double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genomes and isometric particles, but approximately 30% have positive sense, single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) genomes.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Masayori Inouye: Masayori Inouye is a Japanese biochemist who, along with his team, discovered natural antisense RNA.Cryptic unstable transcript: Cryptic Unstable Transcripts (CUTs) are a subset of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that are produced from intergenic and intragenic regions. CUTs were first observed in S.Hairpin ribozymeArmitage–Doll multistage model of carcinogenesis: The Armitage–Doll model is a statistical model of carcinogenesis, proposed in 1954 by Peter Armitage and Richard Doll, which suggested that a sequence of multiple distinct genetic events preceded the onset of cancer. The original paper has recently been reprinted with a set of commentary articles.Gene knockdown: Gene knockdown refers to an experimental technique by which the expression of one or more of an organism's genes are reduced. The reduction can occur either through genetic modification or by treatment with a reagent such as a short DNA or RNA oligonucleotide that has a sequence complementary to either gene or an mRNA transcript.Transcription preinitiation complex: The preinitiation complex (abbreviated PIC) is a large complex of proteins that is necessary for the transcription of protein-coding genes in eukaryotes (+archaea). The preinitiation complex helps position RNA polymerase II over gene transcription start sites, denatures the DNA, and positions the DNA in the RNA polymerase II active site for transcription.Dark matter halo: A dark matter halo is a hypothetical component of a galaxy that envelops the galactic disc and extends well beyond the edge of the visible galaxy. The halo's mass dominates the total mass.Nanovid microscopy: Nanovid microscopy, from “nanometer video-enhanced microscopy”, is a microscopic technique aimed at visualizing colloidal gold particles of 20-40 nm diameter (nanogold, immunogold) as dynamic markers at the light microscopic level. The nanogold particles as such are smaller than the diffraction limit of light, but can be visualized by using Video-Enhanced Differential Interference Contrast (VEDIC).Piwi-interacting RNA: Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) is the largest class of small non-coding RNA molecules expressed in animal cells.Molecular Biology Select.RNA transfection: RNA transfection is the process of deliberately introducing RNA into a living cell. RNA can be purified from cells after lysis or synthesized from free nucleotides either chemically, or enzymatically using an RNA polymerase to transcribe a DNA template.Nucleic acid structure: Nucleic acid structure refers to the structure of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. Chemically speaking, DNA and RNA are very similar.History of research on Caenorhabditis elegans: The nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans was first studied in the laboratory by Victor Nigon and Ellsworth Dougherty in the 1940s, but came to prominence after being adopted by Sydney Brenner in 1963 as a model organism for the study of developmental biology using genetics. In 1974, Brenner published the results of his first genetic screen, which isolated hundreds of mutants with morphological phenotypes.U6 spliceosomal RNASilent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.RNA-binding protein database: The RNA-binding Proteins Database (RBPDB) is a biological database of RNA-binding protein specificities that includes experimental observations of RNA-binding sites. The experimental results included are both in vitro and in vivo from primary literature.T-box leaderDExD/H box proteins: DEAD box, DEAH, and the Ski families of proteins are all referred to as DExD/H box proteins. They are all quite distinct from one another and there is not one protein that belongs to more than one of these families.Trypanosoma bruceiProximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Eukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.Multiple cloning site: A multiple cloning site (MCS), also called a polylinker, is a short segment of DNA which contains many (up to ~20) restriction sites - a standard feature of engineered plasmids. Restriction sites within an MCS are typically unique, occurring only once within a given plasmid.GC box: In molecular biology, a GC box is a distinct pattern of nucleotides found in the promoter region of some eukaryotic genes upstream of the TATA box and approximately 110 bases upstream from the transcription initiation site. It has a consensus sequence GGGCGG which is position dependent and orientation independent.Pituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1: POU domain, class 1, transcription factor 1 (Pit1, growth hormone factor 1), also known as POU1F1, is a transcription factor for growth hormone.BESS domain: In molecular biology, the BESS domain is a protein domain which has been named after the three proteins that originally defined the domain: BEAF (Boundary element associated factor 32), Suvar(3)7 and Stonewall ). The BESS domain is 40 amino acid residues long and is predicted to be composed of three alpha helices, as such it might be related to the myb/SANT HTH domain.Synapto-pHluorin: Synapto-pHluorin is a genetically encoded optical indicator of vesicle release and recycling. It is used in neuroscience to study transmitter release.Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Triparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.Indy (gene): Indy, short for I'm not dead yet, is a gene of the model organism, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Mutant versions of this gene have doubled the average life span of fruit flies in at least one set of experiments, but this result has been subject to controversy.FERM domain: In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.Drosophila embryogenesis: Drosophila embryogenesis, the process by which Drosophila (fruit fly) embryos form, is a favorite model system for geneticists and developmental biologists studying embryogenesis. The small size, short generation time, and large brood size make it ideal for genetic studies.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Plant perception (physiology): Plant perception is the ability of plants to sense and respond to the environment to adjust their morphology, physiology and phenotype accordingly. Other disciplines such as plant physiology, ecology and molecular biology are used to assess this ability.DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Ribonuclease L: Ribonuclease L or RNase L (for latent), known sometimes as ribonuclease 4 or 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase-dependent ribonuclease — is an interferon (IFN)-induced ribonuclease which, upon activation, destroys all RNA within the cell (both cellular and viral). RNase L is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RNASEL gene.Spatiotemporal gene expressionGene signature: A gene signature is a group of genes in a cell whose combined expression patternItadani H, Mizuarai S, Kotani H. Can systems biology understand pathway activation?HITS-CLIP: High-throughput sequencing of RNA isolated by crosslinking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP) is a genome-wide means of mapping protein–RNA binding sites in vivo.Darnell RB (2010) HITS-CLIP: panoramic views of protein-RNA regulation in living cells.Hyperphosphorylation: Hyperphosphorylation occurs when a biochemical with multiple phosphorylation sites is fully saturated. Hyperphosphorylation is one of the signalling mechanisms used by the cell to regulate mitosis.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingTotal internal reflection fluorescence microscope: A total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRFM) is a type of microscope with which a thin region of a specimen, usually less than 200 nm can be observed.MicroRNA and microRNA target database: This microRNA database and microRNA targets databases is a compilation of databases and web portals and servers used for microRNAs and their targets. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent an important class of small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that regulate gene expression by targeting messenger RNAs.DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.
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