Rheumatoid factor: Rheumatoid factor (RF) is the autoantibody (antibody directed against an organism's own tissues) that was first found in rheumatoid arthritis. It is defined as an antibody against the Fc portion of IgG (an antibody against an antibody).ACR score for rheumatoid arthritis: ACR score is a scale to measure change in rheumatoid arthritis symptoms. It is named after the American College of Rheumatology.SeroconversionCD4 immunoadhesin: CD4 immunoadhesin is a recombinant fusion protein consisting of a combination of CD4 and the fragment crystallizable region.Raji cell: Raji cell line is the first continuous human cell line from hematopoietic origin. The cell lines produce an unusual strain of Epstein-Barr virus which will both transform cord blood lymphocytes and induce early antigens in Raji cells.Autoantibody: An autoantibody is an antibody (a type of protein) produced by the immune system that is directed against one or more of the individual's own proteins. Many autoimmune diseases, (notably lupus erythematosus), are caused by such autoantibodies.Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis: Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis is a skin condition presenting in roughly 15% of people with a circulating cryoprecipitable protein.Anti-dsDNA antibodies: Anti-dsDNA antibodies are a group of anti-nuclear antibodies and their target antigen is double stranded DNA. Blood tests such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescence are routinely performed to detect anti-dsDNA antibodies in diagnostic laboratories.Latex fixation test: The latex agglutination method is used clinically in the identification and typing of many important microorganisms. These tests are based on and utilize the patient's antigen-antibody immune response.Anti-idiotypic vaccine: Anti-idiotypic vaccines comprise antibodies that have three-dimensional immunogenic regions, designated idiotopes, that consist of protein sequences that bind to cell receptors. Idiotopes are aggregated into idiotypes specific of their target antigen.Turbidimetry: Turbidimetry (the name being derived from turbidity) is the process of measuring the loss of intensity of transmitted light due to the scattering effect of particles suspended in it. Light is passed through a filter creating a light of known wavelength which is then passed through a cuvette containing a solution.AnakinraAnnals of the Rheumatic Diseases: The Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases is a peer-reviewed medical journal. It is co-owned by the BMJ Group and the European League Against Rheumatism and covers all aspects of rheumatology, including musculoskeletal conditions, arthritis, and connective tissue diseases.Eva Engvall: Eva Engvall, born 1940, is one of the scientists who invented ELISA in 1971.Eva Engvall, The Scientist 1995, 9(18):8Arthritis Research UKAutomated analyser: An automated analyser is a medical laboratory instrument designed to measure different chemicals and other characteristics in a number of biological samples quickly, with minimal human assistance.CitrullinePrevalence: Prevalence in epidemiology is the proportion of a population found to have a condition (typically a disease or a risk factor such as smoking or seat-belt use). It is arrived at by comparing the number of people found to have the condition with the total number of people studied, and is usually expressed as a fraction, as a percentage or as the number of cases per 10,000 or 100,000 people.Childhood arthritisArthrogramHemagglutination assay: The hemagglutination assay (or haemagglutination assay; HA) and the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI) were developed in 1941–42 by American virologist George Hirst as methods for quantitating the relative concentration of viruses, bacteria, or antibodies.Osler's node: Osler's nodes are painful, red, raised lesions found on the hands and feet. They are associated with a number of conditions, including infective endocarditis, and are caused by immune complex deposition.Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema: Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (abbreviated RS3PE or sometimes RS3PE) is a rare syndrome identified by symmetric polyarthritis, synovitis, acute pitting edema (swelling) of the back of the hands and/or feet, and a negative serum rheumatoid factor. If no underlying disorder can be identified (idiopathic RS3PE), this entity has an excellent prognosis and responds well to treatment.Diary TourCutaneous small-vessel vasculitis: Cutaneous small-vessel vasculitis (also known as "Cutaneous leukocytoclastic angiitis," "Cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis," "Cutaneous necrotizing venulitis," and "Hypersensitivity angiitis") is inflammation of small blood vessels (usually post-capillary venules in the dermis), characterized by palpable purpura. It is the most common vasculitis seen in clinical practice.Autoimmune diseaseDredge ball joint: A dredge ball joint is a connection between two pipes that are used to transport a mixture of water and sand from a dredger to the discharging area.Otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia: Otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia (OSMED) is an autosomal recessive disorder of bone growth that results in skeletal abnormalities, severe hearing loss, and distinctive facial features. The name of the condition indicates that it affects hearing (oto-) and the bones of the spine (spondylo-), and enlarges the ends of bones (megaepiphyses).Biomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.Polyclonal B cell response: Polyclonal B cell response is a natural mode of immune response exhibited by the adaptive immune system of mammals. It ensures that a single antigen is recognized and attacked through its overlapping parts, called epitopes, by multiple clones of B cell.Immunoglobulin heavy chainFramework region: In molecular biology, a framework region is a region in the variable domain of a protein which belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily, and which is less "variable" than the CDR.Systemic lupus erythematosus and pregnancy: For women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), pregnancy can present some particular challenges for both mother and child.C1q domain: In molecular biology, the C1q domain is a conserved protein domain. C1q is a subunit of the C1 enzyme complex that activates the serum complement system.Monoclonal antibody therapyCongenital syphilisCryptic self epitopes: In immunology, cryptic self epitopes are a source of autoimmunity.Bullous small vessel vasculitis: Bullous small vessel vasculitis (also known as "Bullous variant of small vessel vasculitis") is a cutaneous condition in which patients with small vessel vasculitis will develop superimposed vesicles and bullae, especially on the distal extremities.Immunoassay: An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a macromolecule in a solution through the use of an antibody or immunoglobulin. The macromolecule detected by the immunoassay is often referred to as an "analyte" and is in many cases a protein.Complement deficiencyComplement component 4: Complement component 4 is a protein involved in the complement system.GAB2: GRB2-associated-binding protein 2 also known as GAB2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GAB2 gene.Immunoglobulin light chainFire (Rodgers novel): Fire is an apocalyptic science fiction/horror novel by Alan Rodgers, published in 1990 as an original paperback from Bantam Books. It was reprinted by specialty publisher Wildside Press in 2000.Undifferentiated connective tissue diseaseRubella virus: Rubella virus (RuV) is the pathogenic agent of the disease rubella, and is the cause of congenital rubella syndrome when infection occurs during the first weeks of pregnancy.