Restriction fragment: A restriction fragment is a DNA fragment resulting from the cutting of a DNA strand by a restriction enzyme (restriction endonucleases), a process called restriction. Each restriction enzyme is highly specific, recognising a particular short DNA sequence, or restriction site, and cutting both DNA strands at specific points within this site.Chromosome regionsLigation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Amplified fragment length polymorphismColes PhillipsDNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Triparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.Homing endonuclease: The homing endonucleases are a collection of endonucleases encoded either as freestanding genes within introns, as fusions with host proteins, or as self-splicing inteins. They catalyze the hydrolysis of genomic DNA within the cells that synthesize them, but do so at very few, or even singular, locations.CALERIE: CALERIE (Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy) is a trial currently underway in the U.S.Antitermination: Antitermination is the prokaryotic cell's aid to fix premature termination of RNA synthesis during the transcription of RNA. It occurs when the RNA polymerase ignores the termination signal, and it provides a mechanism whereby one or more genes at the end of an operon can be switched either on or off, depending on the polymerase either recognizing or not recognizing the termination signal.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Restriction site: Restriction sites, or restriction recognition sites, are locations on a DNA molecule containing specific (4-8 base pairs in length) sequences of nucleotides, which are recognized by restriction enzymes. These are generally palindromic sequences (because restriction enzymes usually bind as homodimers), and a particular restriction enzyme may cut the sequence between two nucleotides within its recognition site, or somewhere nearby.Direct repeat: Direct repeats are a type of genetic sequence that consists of two or more repeats of a specific sequence.Composite transposon: A composite transposon is similar in function to simple transposons and Insertion Sequence (IS) elements in that it has protein coding DNA segments flanked by inverted, repeated sequences that can be recognized by transposase enzymes. A composite transposon, however, is flanked by two separate IS elements which may or may not be exact replicas.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Thermal cyclerGenetic linkage: Genetic linkage is the tendency of alleles that are located close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction. Genes whose loci are nearer to each other are less likely to be separated onto different chromatids during chromosomal crossover, and are therefore said to be genetically linked.Alternative splicing: Alternative splicing is a regulated process during gene expression that results in a single gene coding for multiple proteins. In this process, particular exons of a gene may be included within or excluded from the final, processed messenger RNA (mRNA) produced from that gene.Intron: right|thumbnail|270px|Representation of intron and [[exons within a simple gene containing a single intron.]]Eukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.ParaHox: The ParaHox gene cluster is an array of homeobox genes (involved in morphogenesis, the regulation of patterns of anatomical development) from the Gsx, Xlox (Pdx) and Cdx gene families.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Recombination (cosmology): In cosmology, recombination refers to the epoch at which charged electrons and protons first became bound to form electrically neutral hydrogen atoms.Note that the term recombination is a misnomer, considering that it represents the first time that electrically neutral hydrogen formed.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Library (biology): In molecular biology, a library is a collection of DNA fragments that is stored and propagated in a population of micro-organisms through the process of molecular cloning. There are different types of DNA libraries, including cDNA libraries (formed from reverse-transcribed RNA), genomic libraries (formed from genomic DNA) and randomized mutant libraries (formed by de novo gene synthesis where alternative nucleotides or codons are incorporated).Gene polymorphismMolar mass distribution: In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value. The molar mass distribution (or molecular weight distribution) in a polymer describes the relationship between the number of moles of each polymer species (Ni) and the molar mass (Mi) of that species.Epitope mapping: Epitope mapping is the process of experimentally identifying the binding sites, or ‘epitopes’, of antibodies on their target antigens. Identification and characterization of the binding sites of antibodies can aid in the discovery and development of new therapeutics, vaccines, and diagnostics.Low-voltage electron microscope: Low-voltage electron microscope (LVEM) is an electron microscope which operates at accelerating voltages of a few kiloelectronvolts or less. While the low voltage electron microscopy technique will never replace conventional high voltage electron microscopes, it is quickly becoming appreciated for many different disciplines.Compensatory growth (organism): Compensatory growth, known as catch-up growth and compensatory gain, is an accelerated growth of an organism following a period of slowed development, particularly as a result of nutrient deprivation. The growth may be with respect to weight or length (or height in humans).DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Infinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.Isocaudomer: Isocaudomers are pairs of restriction enzymes that have slightly different recognition sequences but upon cleavage generate identical termini. For example the enzymes Mbo I and BamH I are isocaudomers:Restriction modification system: The restriction modification system (RM system) is used by bacteria, and perhaps other prokaryotic organisms, to protect themselves from foreign DNA, such as the one borne by bacteriophages. It was first discovered by Salvatore Luria and Mary Human in 1952 and 1953.Genetic variation: right|thumbMaximum life span: Maximum life span is a measure of the maximum amount of time one or more members of a population has been observed to survive between birth and death. The term can also denote an estimate of the maximum amount of time that a member of a given species could survive between life and death, provided circumstances that are optimal to their longevity.Pedigree chart: A pedigree chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next,pedigree chart Genealogy Glossary -, a part of The New York Times Company.Endonuclease: Endonucleases are enzymes that cleave the phosphodiester bond within a polynucleotide chain. Some, such as Deoxyribonuclease I, cut DNA relatively nonspecifically (without regard to sequence), while many, typically called restriction endonucleases or restriction enzymes, cleave only at very specific nucleotide sequences.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.List of countries by food energy intake: Food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. However the actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household, e.DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis: Amplified rDNA (Ribosomal DNA) Restriction Analysis is the extension of the technique of RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) to the gene encoding the small (16s) ribosomal subunit of bacteria. The technique involves an enzymatic amplification using primers directed at the conserved regions at the ends of the 16s gene, followed by digestion using tetracutter Restriction enzymes.Microsatellite: A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 2–5 base pairs) are repeated, typically 5-50 times. Microsatellites occur at thousands of locations in the human genome and they are notable for their high mutation rate and high diversity in the population.Low-protein diet: A low-protein diet is a diet in which people reduce their intake of protein. A low-protein diet is prescribed for those with inherited metabolic disorders, such as Phenylketonuria and Homocystinuria and reduced protein levels have been used by people with kidney or liver disease.WGAViewer: WGAViewer is a bioinformatics software tool which is designed to visualize, annotate, and help interpret the results generated from a genome wide association study (GWAS). Alongside the P values of association, WGAViewer allows a researcher to visualize and consider other supporting evidence, such as the genomic context of the SNP, linkage disequilibrium (LD) with ungenotyped SNPs, gene expression database, and the evidence from other GWAS projects, when determining the potential importance of an individual SNP.Mac OS X Server 1.0Dieter Weichert: Dieter Weichert (born 1948) is a German mechanical engineer specialising in solid mechanics and polymer rheology. Since 1995 he is the Director of the Institute for General Mechanics of RWTH Aachen.CS-BLASTGeneralizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.List of sequenced eukaryotic genomesTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studying