Withdrawal reflex: The withdrawal reflex (nociceptive or flexor withdrawal reflex) is a spinal reflex intended to protect the body from damaging stimuli. It is polysynaptic, causing stimulation of sensory, association, and motor neurons.Jendrassik maneuver: The Jendrassik maneuver is a medical maneuver wherein the patient clenches the teeth, flexes both sets of fingers into a hook-like form and interlocks those sets of fingers together. The tendon below the patient's knee is then hit with a reflex hammer to elicit the patellar reflex.Primitive reflexes: Primitive reflexes are reflex actions originating in the central nervous system that are exhibited by normal infants, but not neurologically intact adults, in response to particular stimuli. These reflexes are absent due to the development of the frontal lobes as a child transitions normally into child development.Acoustic reflex: The acoustic reflex (also known as the stapedius reflex, middle-ear-muscles (MEM) reflex, attenuation reflex, or auditory reflex) is an involuntary muscle contraction that occurs in the middle ear in response to high-intensity sound stimuli or when the person starts to vocalize.Vision in fishes: Vision is an important sensory system for most species of fish. Fish eyes are similar to terrestrial vertebrates like birds and mammals, but have a more spherical lens.Task-invoked pupillary responseAging movement control: Normal aging movement control in humans is about the changes on the muscles, motor neurons, nerves, sensory functions, gait, fatigue, visual and manual responses, in men and women as they get older but who do not have neurological, muscular (atrophy, dystrophy...) or neuromuscular disorder.DecerebrationPhilip Hoffman (surfing): Philip Rube "Flippy" Hoffman (January 24, 1930 – November 10, 2010) was a legendary big wave surfing pioneer and businessman.List of reflexes (by organ): This is a list of reflexes by organ:Baroreceptor: Baroreceptors (or archaically, pressoreceptors or baroceptors) are sensors located in the blood vessels of all vertebrate animals. They sense the blood pressure and relay the information to the brain, so that a proper blood pressure can be maintained.Status migrainosus: Status Migrainosus, also known as Status Migraine, Intractable Migraine and Pernicious Migraine is defined as a severe migraine headache without aura, lasting longer than 72 hours and is classified as a complication of a migraine. There are about 100 million people with headaches in the U.Abdominal reflex: An abdominal reflex is a superficial neurological reflex stimulated by stroking of the abdomen around the umbilicus. It can be helpful in determining the level of lesion in a neurology case.Cats in the United States: Many different species of mammal can be classified as cats (felids) in the United States. These include domestic cat (both house cats and feral), of the species Felis catus; medium-sized wild cats from the genus Lynx; and big cats from the genera Puma and Panthera.Cortical stimulation mapping: Cortical stimulation mapping (often shortened to CSM) is a type of electrocorticography that involves a physically invasive procedure and aims to localize the function of specific brain regions through direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex. It remains one of the earliest methods of analyzing the brain and has allowed researchers to study the relationship between cortical structure and systemic function.Pharyngeal reflex: The pharyngeal reflex or gag reflex (also known as a laryngeal spasm) is a reflex contraction of the back of the throat, evoked by touching the roof of the mouth, the back of the tongue, the area around the tonsils and the back of the throat. It, along with other aero digestive reflexes such as reflexive pharyngeal swallowing, prevents something from entering the throat except as part of normal swallowing and helps prevent choking.Photosensitive epilepsy: Photosensitive epilepsy (PSE) is a form of epilepsy in which seizures are triggered by visual stimuli that form patterns in time or space, such as flashing lights, bold, regular patterns, or regular moving patterns.Cephalic phase: The cephalic phase of gastric secretion occurs even before food enters the stomach, especially while it is being eaten. It results from the sight, smell, thought, or taste of food, and the greater the appetite, the more intense is the stimulation.Mechanosensation: Mechanosensation is a response mechanism to mechanical stimuli. The physiological foundation for the senses of touch, hearing and balance, and pain is the conversion of mechanical stimuli into neuronal signals: mechanosensation.Renshaw cell: Renshaw cells are inhibitory interneurons found in the gray matter of the spinal cord, and are associated in two ways with an alpha motor neuron.PhentolamineBaroreflex: The baroreflex or baroreceptor reflex is one of the body's homeostatic mechanisms that helps to maintain blood pressure at nearly constant levels. The baroreflex provides a rapid negative feedback loop in which an elevated blood pressure reflexively causes the heart rate to decrease and also causes blood pressure to decrease.Muscle contraction: Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers. In physiology, muscle contraction does not mean muscle shortening because muscle tension can be produced without changes in muscle length such as holding a heavy book or a dumbbell at the same position.Interbeat interval: Interbeat interval is a scientific term used in the study of the mammalian heart.Carotid sinus: In human anatomy, the carotid sinus (or carotid bulb) is a dilated area at the base of the internal carotid just superior to the bifurcation of the common carotid at the level of the superior border of thyroid cartilage. The carotid sinus is sensitive to pressure changes in the arterial blood at this level.Trigeminovascular system: The trigeminovascular system consists of neurons in the trigeminal nerve that innervate cerebral blood vessels. It has been hypothesized that the trigeminovascular system may be involved in some types of headaches.Neuromere: Neuromeres are morphologically or molecularly defined transient segments of the early developing brain. Rhombomeres are such segments that make up the rhombencephalon or hindbrain.Urination: Urination is the release of urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the urinary meatus outside of the body. It is also known medically as micturition, voiding, uresis, or, rarely, emiction, and known colloquially by various names including tinkling, peeing, weeing, and pissing.Aortic pressure: Central aortic blood pressure (CAP or CASP) is the blood pressure at the root of aorta. Studies have shown the importance of central aortic pressure and its implications in assessing the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment with respect to cardiovascular risk factors.Hollander beater: A Hollander beater is a machine developed by the Dutch in 1680 to produce paper pulp from cellulose containing plant fibers. It replaced stamp mills for preparing pulp because the Hollander could produce in one day the same quantity of pulp it would take a stamp mill eight days to prepare.Myokine: A myokine is one of several hundred cytokines or other small proteins (~5–20 kDa) and proteoglycan peptides that are produced and released by muscle cells (myocytes) in response to muscular contractions.Bente Klarlund Pedersen , Thorbjörn C.Central chemoreceptors: Central chemoreceptors of the central nervous system, located on the ventrolateral medullary surface in the vicinity of the exit of the 9th and 10th cranial nerves, are sensitive to the pH of their environment.DihydrocapsaicinWound bed preparationNerve biopsyIntrafusal muscle fiberSonepiprazoleHabit cough: A habit cough (also known as psychogenic cough and pseudoasthma) is a cough that may develop in children or adolescents after a cold or other airway irritant. It has also been reported in adults.Riding-like sittingVoluntary Parenthood League: The Voluntary Parenthood League (VPL) was an organization that advocated for contraception during the birth control movement in the United States. The VPL was founded in 1919 by Mary Dennett.PeristalsisSinus bradycardiaCordotomyOtolith: An otolith (οτο-, oto-, ear + λιθος, lithos, a stone), also called statoconium or otoconium, is a structure in the saccule or utricle of the inner ear, specifically in the vestibular labyrinth of vertebrates. They have been identified in both extinct and extant vertebrates.Solitary nucleus: In the human brain, the solitary nucleus (nucleus of the solitary tract, nucleus solitarius, nucleus tractus solitarii, NTS) is a series of nuclei (clusters of nerve cell bodies) forming a vertical column of grey matter embedded in the medulla oblongata. Through the center of the NTS runs the solitary tract, a white bundle of nerve fibers, including fibers from the facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves, that [the NTS.Dorsalis pedis artery: In human anatomy, the dorsalis pedis artery (dorsal artery of foot), is a blood vessel of the lower limb that carries oxygenated blood to the dorsal surface of the foot. It arises at the anterior aspect of the ankle joint and is a continuation of the anterior tibial artery.Fall Heads Roll: Fall Heads Roll is an album by The Fall, released in 2005. It was recorded at Gracieland Studios in Rochdale, UK and Gigantic Studios in New York, NY.DimefoxDoxanthrine: Doxanthrine is a synthetic compound which is a potent and selective full agonist for the dopamine D1 receptor. Doxanthrine has been shown to be orally active in producing contralateral rotation in the 6-hydroxy-dopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease.Alexander's law: Jacobson GP et al. Alexander's law revisited.Extended physiological proprioception: Extended physiological proprioception (EPP) is a concept pioneered by D.C.Rostral ventromedial medulla: The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), or ventromedial nucleus of the spinal cord, is a group of neurons located close to the midline on the floor of the medulla oblongata (myelencephalon). The rostral ventromedial medulla sends descending inhibitory and excitatory fibers to the dorsal horn spinal cord neurons.Bladder augmentation: Bladder augmentation is a surgical alteration of the urinary bladder. It involves removing strips of tissue from the intestinal tract and adding this to the tissue of the bladder.Vibration white finger: Vibration white finger (VWF), also known as hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) or dead finger,) is a secondary form of Raynaud's syndrome, an industrial injury triggered by continuous use of vibrating hand-held machinery. Use of the term "vibration white finger" has generally been superseded in professional usage by broader concept of HAVS, although it is still used by the general public.Pulmonary stretch receptors: Pulmonary stretch receptors are mechanoreceptors found in the lungs.Nociceptor: A nociceptor is a sensory neuron (nerve cell) that responds to potentially damaging stimuli by sending signals to the spinal cord and brain. This process, called nociception, usually causes the perception of pain.Anesthesia cart: Anesthesia carts are hospital devices used to store tools that are necessary for aid during procedures that require administration of anesthesia. Anesthesia refers to the use of drugs to subdue a patient's mind and prevent him or her from feeling any pain during a surgical operation.SpasmEndoanal ultrasound: Endoanal ultrasound is a type of medical investigation which images the structures of the anal canal.Central tegmental tract: The central tegmental tractKamali A, Kramer LA, Butler IJ, Hasan KM. Diffusion tensor tractography of the somatosensory system in the human brainstem: initial findings using high isotropic spatial resolution at 3.Transpulmonary pressure: Transpulmonary pressure is the difference between the alveolar pressure and the intrapleural pressure in the lungs. During human ventilation, air flows because of pressure gradients.Vestibular system: The vestibular system, in most mammals, is the sensory system that provides the leading contribution about the sense of balance and spatial orientation for the purpose of coordinating movement with balance. Together with the cochlea, a part of the auditory system, it constitutes the labyrinth of the inner ear in most mammals, situated in the vestibulum in the inner ear (Figure 1).Sensitization: Sensitization is a non-associative learning process in which repeated administrations of a stimulus results in the progressive amplification of a response. Sensitization often is characterized by an enhancement of response to a whole class of stimuli in addition to the one that is repeated.Rehabilitation in spinal cord injury: When treating a person with a spinal cord injury, repairing the damage created by injury is the ultimate goal. By using a variety of treatments, greater improvements are achieved, and, therefore, treatment should not be limited to one method.Hay–Wells syndromeTizanidineUrethral soundingThiobutabarbitalKennel clubCompound muscle action potential: The compound muscle action potential (CMAP) or compound motor action potential is an electromyography investigation (electrical study of muscle function).Infraglottic cavity: The infraglottic cavity is the portion of the larynx below the laryngeal ventricles and the rima glottidis.Masticatory force: Masticatory force or force of mastication is defined as a force, which is created by the dynamic action of the masticatory muscles during the physiological act of chewing.Ventricular action potentialTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studying