Transverse folds of rectum: The transverse folds of rectum (or Houston's valves) are semi-lunar transverse folds of the rectal wall that protrude into the rectum, not the anal canal as that lies below the rectum. Their use seems to be to support the weight of fecal matter, and prevent its urging toward the anus, which would produce a strong urge to defecate.Endoanal ultrasound: Endoanal ultrasound is a type of medical investigation which images the structures of the anal canal.Cervical cancer staging: Cervical cancer staging is the assessment of cervical cancer to decide how far the disease has progressed. Cancer staging generally runs from stage 0, which is pre-cancerous or non-invasive, to stage 4, in which the cancer has spread throughout a significant part of the body.Sigmoidocele: Sigmoidocele (also known as Pouch of Douglas descent) refers to a condition where the sigmoid colon descends (prolapses) into the lower pelvic cavity. This can obstruct the rectum and cause symptoms of obstructed defecation.Inflammatory fibroid polyp: Inflammatory fibroid polyp, abbreviated IFP, is a benign abnormal growth of tissue projecting into the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract.MegacolonProctitisProlapse: Prolapse literally means "to fall out of placeā€š" from the Latin prolabi meaning "to fall out." In medicine, prolapse is a condition where organs, such as the uterus, fall down or slip out of place.ColostomyIferanserin: Iferanserin (INN; VEN-309) is a drug which acts as a selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist. It is under development as an intra-rectal formulation for the treatment of hemorrhoid disease, and as of February 2012, is in phase IIb clinical trials.Oncotype DX Colon Cancer AssayVirtual colonoscopy: Virtual colonoscopy (VC, also called CT Colonography or CT Pneumocolon) is a medical imaging procedure which uses x-rays and computers to produce two- and three-dimensional images of the colon (large intestine) from the lowest part, the rectum, all the way to the lower end of the small intestine and display them on a screen. The procedure is used to diagnose colon and bowel disease, including polyps, diverticulosis and cancer.PanitumumabObstructed defecation: Obstructed defecation (also known as rectal outlet obstruction, evacuatory dysfunction, obstructed defecation syndrome, outlet constipation, and pelvic outlet obstruction), is "difficulty in evacuation or emptying the rectum [which] may occur even with frequent visits to the toilet and even with passing soft motions". The conditions that can create the symptom are sometimes grouped together as defecation disorders.List of eponymous surgical procedures: Eponymous surgical procedures are generally named after the surgeon or surgeons who performed or reported them first. In some instances they are named after the surgeon who popularised them or refined existing procedures, and occasionally are named after the patient who first underwent the procedure.ColectomyAdenocarcinoma of the lung: Adenocarcinoma of the lung (pulmonary adenocarcinoma) is a common histological form of lung cancer that contains certain distinct malignant tissue architectural, cytological, or molecular features, including gland and/or duct formation and/or production of significant amounts of mucus.Haustrum (anatomy): The haustra (singular haustrum) of the colon are the small pouches caused by sacculation (sac formation), which give the colon its segmented appearance. The teniae coli run the length of the large intestine.Surgical staple: Surgical staples are specialized staples used in surgery in place of sutures to close skin wounds, connect or remove parts of the bowels or lungs. A more recent development, from the 1990s, uses clips instead of staples for some applications; this does not require the staple to penetrate.Malone antegrade continence enema: right|300px|thumb|The [[vermiform appendix is typically used in the Malone antegrade continence enema.]]Functional constipation: Functional constipation, known as chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC), is constipation that does not have a physical (anatomical) or physiological (hormonal or other body chemistry) cause. It may have a neurological, psychological or psychosomatic cause.Imperforate anusDescending perineum syndrome: Descending perineum syndrome (also known as Levator plate sagging) refers to a condition where the perineum "balloons" several centimeters below the bony outlet of the pelvis during strain, although this descent may happen without straining. The syndrome was first described in 1966 by Parks et al.Glasgow-Blatchford score: The Glasgow-Blatchford bleeding score (GBS) is a screening tool to assess the likelihood that a patient with an acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) will need to have medical intervention such as a blood transfusion or endoscopic intervention. The tool may be able to identify patients who do not need to be admitted to hospital after a UGIB.Digestive system of gastropods: The digestive system of gastropods (slugs and snails of every kind) has evolved to suit almost every kind of diet and feeding behavior. Gastropods as the largest taxonomic class of the mollusca are very diverse indeed: the group includes carnivores, herbivores, scavengers, filter feeders, and even parasites.Prostate brachytherapyExternal beam radiotherapyThyroid adenomaSplenic flexure syndrome: Splenic flexure syndrome is a term sometimes used to describe bloating, muscle spasms of the colon, and upper abdominal discomfort thought to be caused by trapped gas at the splenic (as opposed to hepatic) flexure in the colon; the pain caused can be excruciating and debilitating, and may mimic that of a heart attack (because of the proximity of the splenic flexure to the diaphragm and referred pain from irritation to the diaphragmatic sensory nerves).Rectovaginal fistulaIleostomySurgical management of fecal incontinence: In fecal incontinence (FI), surgery may be carried out if conservative measures alone are not sufficient to control symptoms. There are many surgical options described for FI, and they can be considered in 4 general groups.Gallbladder polyp: Gallbladder polyps are growths or lesions resembling growths (polypoid lesions) in the wall of the gallbladder. True polyps are abnormal accumulations of mucous membrane tissue that would normally be shed by the body.Vaginal septumSessile serrated adenoma: In gastroenterology, a sessile serrated adenoma (abbreviated SSA), also known as sessile serrated polyp (abbreviated SSP), is a premalignant flat (or sessile) lesion of the colon, predominantly seen in the cecum and ascending colon.Bladder augmentation: Bladder augmentation is a surgical alteration of the urinary bladder. It involves removing strips of tissue from the intestinal tract and adding this to the tissue of the bladder.CecectomyLudwig-McGill HPV CohortProctocolectomy: Proctocolectomy is the surgical removal of the rectum and all or part of the colon. It is a most widely accepted surgical method for ulcerative colitis and Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) .Rubber band ligationPenetrating atherosclerotic ulcer: A penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU) is an atherosclerotic lesion that ulcerates, leading to a hematoma forming within the walls of the aorta.Hirschsprung's diseaseSuppository: A suppository is a drug delivery system that is inserted into the rectum (rectal suppository), vagina (vaginal suppository) or urethra (urethral suppository), where it dissolves or melts and is absorbed into the blood stream. They are used to deliver both systemically and locally acting medications.Gastrointestinal perforation