PD-0298029Muscarinic antagonist: A muscarinic receptor antagonist (MRA) is a type of anticholinergic agent that blocks the activity of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Acetylcholine (often abbreviated ACh) is a neurotransmitter, whose receptor is a protein found in synapses and other cell membranes.Diaminopropane: Diaminopropane may refer to either of two isomeric chemical compounds:TelenzepineHector McNeil: Hector McNeil PC (10 March 1907 – 11 October 1955) was a Scottish Labour politician.Mesoionic: Mesoionic compounds are dipolar five membered heterocyclic compounds in which both the negative and the positive charges are delocalized. A completely uncharged structure cannot be written and mesoionic compounds cannot be represented satisfactorily by any one mesomeric structure.MuscarinePiperlongumineSunifiramTiotropium bromide: (cation)Phenylpiperidine: Phenylpiperidine is a chemical compound with a phenyl moiety directly attached to piperidine. There are a variety of pharmacological effects associated some phenylpiperidines including morphine-like activity or other central nervous system effects.Parasympathomimetic drug: A parasympathomimetic drug, sometimes called a cholinomimetic drug, is a substance that stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS). These chemicals are also called cholinergic drugs because acetylcholine (ACh) is the neurotransmitter used by the PSNS. Chemicals in this family can act either directly by stimulating the nicotinic or muscarinic receptors (thus mimicking acetylcholine), or indirectly by inhibiting cholinesterase, promoting acetylcholine release, or other mechanisms. Brenner, G. M. (2000). Pharmacology. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company. ISBN 0-7216-7757-6Active placebo: An active placebo is a placebo that produces noticeable side effects that may convince the person being treated that they are receiving a legitimate treatment, rather than an ineffective placebo.BethanecholJohns Hopkins University Center for Communication Programs: The Johns Hopkins University Center for Communication Programs (informally JHUCCP, or simply CCP) was founded over 20 years ago as a part the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health's department of Health, Behavior, and Society and is located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States.CCP | Who We AreMethacholineA. N. Hartley: Annie Norah Hartley (1902 – 1994), usually known simply as Norah Hartley, was a dog breeder and the first female board member of the Kennel Club.Malta in the Eurovision Song Contest 2007: Malta chose their entry for the Eurovision Song Contest 2007 during the Malta Song for Europe 2007. After a semi-final on 1 February and a final on 3 February, the Maltese televoters decided that Olivia Lewis would represent Malta at Eurovision with the song "Vertigo".Trachealis muscle: The trachealis muscle is a smooth muscle that bridges the gap between the free ends of C-shaped cartilages at the posterior border of the trachea, adjacent to the esophagus.Baby hamster kidney cell: Baby Hamster Kidney fibroblasts (aka BHK cells) are an adherent cell line used in molecular biology.Dilated fundus examination: Dilated fundus examination or dilated-pupil fundus examination (DFE) is a diagnostic procedure that employs the use of mydriatic eye drops (such as tropicamide) to dilate or enlarge the pupil in order to obtain a better view of the fundus of the eye.Exam Information Once the pupil is dilated, examiners use ophthalmoscopy (funduscopy) to view the eye's interior, allowing assessment of the retina, optic nerve head, blood vessels, and other features.Guanylate-binding protein: In molecular biology, the guanylate-binding protein family is a family of GTPases that is induced by interferon (IFN)-gamma. GTPases induced by IFN-gamma (Interferon-inducible GTPase) are key to the protective immunity against microbial and viral pathogens.ObidoximeMuscle contraction: Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers. In physiology, muscle contraction does not mean muscle shortening because muscle tension can be produced without changes in muscle length such as holding a heavy book or a dumbbell at the same position.Concentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Jaehoon Ahn: Jaehoon Ahn (May 13, 1941 – June 1, 2011) was a North Korean-born American journalist and researcher. Ahn worked as a researcher for the Washington Post for more than twenty-five years, until 1996.Rainer Ludwig ClaisenPertussis toxinPhosphatidylinositolTacrineAllosteric regulationInositol phosphateWIN 56,098: WIN 56,098 is a chemical that is considered to be an aminoalkylindole derivative. It is a tricyclic aryl derivative that acts as a competitive antagonist at the CB2 cannabinoid receptor.Left atrial enlargement: Left atrial enlargement (LAE) or left atrial dilation refers to enlargement of the left atrium (LA) of the heart, and is a form of cardiomegaly.G protein-gated ion channelDEP domain: In molecular biology, the DEP domain (Dishevelled, Egl-10 and Pleckstrin domain) is a globular protein domain of about 80 amino acids that is found in over 50 proteins involved in G-protein signalling pathways. It was named after the three proteins it was initially found in:Trospium chloridePomalidomideCalcium signaling: Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors.QuinuclidineCortical stimulation mapping: Cortical stimulation mapping (often shortened to CSM) is a type of electrocorticography that involves a physically invasive procedure and aims to localize the function of specific brain regions through direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex. It remains one of the earliest methods of analyzing the brain and has allowed researchers to study the relationship between cortical structure and systemic function.Tritium illumination: Tritium illumination is the use of gaseous tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, to create visible light. Tritium emits electrons through beta decay, and, when they interact with a phosphor material, fluorescent light is created, a process called radioluminescence.Parasympatholytic: A parasympatholytic agent is a substance or activity that reduces the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system. (The parasympathetic nervous system is often colloquially described as the "Feed and Breed" or "Rest and Digest" portion of the autonomic nervous system.MitiglinidePatch clamp: The patch clamp technique is a laboratory technique in electrophysiology that allows the study of single or multiple ion channels in cells. The technique can be applied to a wide variety of cells, but is especially useful in the study of excitable cells such as neurons, cardiomyocytes, muscle fibers, and pancreatic beta cells.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".RNA transfection: RNA transfection is the process of deliberately introducing RNA into a living cell. RNA can be purified from cells after lysis or synthesized from free nucleotides either chemically, or enzymatically using an RNA polymerase to transcribe a DNA template.Potassium channel opener: A potassium channel opener is a type of drug which facilitates ion transmission through potassium channels.TerpyridineInositol-1,3,4-trisphosphate 5/6-kinase: inositol-1,3,4-trisphosphate 5/6-kinase (, Ins(1,3,4)P3 5/6-kinase, inositol trisphosphate 5/6-kinase) is an enzyme with system name ATP:1D-myo-inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate 5-phosphotransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionDexetimideCrosstalk (biology): Biological crosstalk refers to instances in which one or more components of one signal transduction pathway affects another. This can be achieved through a number of ways with the most common form being crosstalk between proteins of signalling cascades.Reversal potential: In a biological membrane, the reversal potential (also known as the Nernst potential) of an ion is the membrane potential at which there is no net (overall) flow of that particular ion from one side of the membrane to the other. In the case of post-synaptic neurons, the reversal potential is the membrane potential at which a given neurotransmitter causes no net current flow of ions through that neurotransmitter receptor's ion channel.GPCR oligomer: A GPCR oligomer is a complex of a small number of G protein-coupled receptors, which is held together by covalent bonds or by intermolecular forces. Receptors within this complex are called protomers, while unconnected receptors are called monomers.PhysostigmineGanglion cellCyclase-associated protein family: In molecular biology, the cyclase-associated protein family (CAP) is a family of highly conserved actin-binding proteins present in a wide range of organisms including yeast, flies, plants, and mammals. CAPs are multifunctional proteins that contain several structural domains.