ATC code S01: ==S01A Anti-infectives==ClinafloxacinOrbifloxacinTosufloxacinGHKL domainTopoisomerase IV: Topoisomerase IV is one of two type-II topoisomerases in bacteria, the other being DNA gyrase. Like gyrase, topoisomerase IV is able to pass one double-strand of DNA through another double-strand of DNA, thereby changing the linking number of DNA by two in each enzymatic step.Combes quinoline synthesis: The Combes quinoline synthesis is a chemical reaction, which was first reported by Combes in 1888. It involves the condensation of unsubstituted anilines (1) with β-diketones (2) to form substituted quinolines (4) after an acid-catalyzed ring closure of an intermediate Schiff base (3).BacitracinLevofloxacinType II topoisomeraseAmitifadineResistome: The resistome is a proposed expression by Gerard D. Wright for the collection of all the antibiotic resistance genes and their precursors in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria.SarafloxacinList of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.SaPI: SaPIs (Staphylococcus aureus or superantigen pathogenicity islands) are a family of mobile genetic elements resident in the genome of some strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Much like bacteriophages, SaPIs can be transferred to uninfected cells and integrate into the host chromosome.PhytophotodermatitisQuellung reaction: The Quellung reaction is a biochemical reaction in which antibodies bind to the bacterial capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Page 340 Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. The antibody reaction allows these species to be visualized under a microscope.Anaerobacter: Anaerobacter are a genus of Gram-positive bacteria related to Clostridium. They are anaerobic chemotrophs and are unusual spore-formers as they produce more than one spore per bacterial cell (up to five spores).Macrolide: The macrolides are a group of drugs (typically antibiotics) whose activity stems from the presence of a macrolide ring, a large macrocyclic lactone ring to which one or more deoxy sugars, usually cladinose and desosamine, may be attached. The lactone rings are usually 14-, 15-, or 16-membered.Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria: MDRGN bacteria is an abbreviation for multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria. For hospitalized patients, and especially patients in intensive care units, these bacterial infections pose a serious and (as of 2010) rapidly emerging threat.Nile redExogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.ClopidolExternal bacterial infection (fish): External bacterial infection is a condition found in fish.NovobiocinGyrA RNA motif: The gyrA RNA motif is a conserved RNA structure identified by bioinformatics. The RNAs are present in multiple species of bacteria within the order Pseudomonadales.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Bartonella bacilliformis: Bartonella bacilliformis is a proteobacterium, Gram negative aerobic, pleomorphic, flagellated, motile, coccobacillary, 2–3 μm large and 0.2–0.EvodiamineMycobacterium houstonense: Mycobacterium houstonense is a member of the Mycobacterium fortuitum third biovariant complex. The specific epithet houstonense refers to Houston, Texas, where the first isolate of the M.Ethyl groupMultiple drug resistance: Multiple drug resistance (MDR), multidrug resistance or multiresistance is antimicrobial resistance shown by a species of microorganism to multiple antimicrobial drugs. The types most threatening to public health are MDR bacteria that resist multiple antibiotics; other types include MDR viruses, fungi, and parasites (resistant to multiple antifungal, antiviral, and antiparasitic drugs of a wide chemical variety).MeclocyclineOrnidazoleKasugamycinDiscovery and development of cephalosporins: Cephalosporins are a broad class of bactericidal antibiotics that include the β-lactam ring and share a structural similarity and mechanism of action with other β-lactam antibiotics (e.g.Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococci (plural), or gonococcus (singular), is a species of Gram-negative coffee bean-shaped diplococci bacteria responsible for the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea.Topoisomerase inhibitor: Topoisomerase inhibitors are agents designed to interfere with the action of topoisomerase enzymes |title=Definition of topoisomerase inhibitor - NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms |format= |work= |accessdate=}} (topoisomerase I and II), which are enzymes that control the changes in DNA structure |title=Dorlands Medical Dictionary:topoisomerase inhibitor |work= |accessdate=}} by catalyzing the breaking and rejoining of the phosphodiester backbone of DNA strands during the normal cell cycle.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Gram-negative bacterial infection: Gram-negative bacterial infection refers to a disease caused by gram-negative bacteria. One example is E.Pasteur point: The Pasteur point is a level of oxygen (about 0.3% by volume which is less than 1% of Present Atmospheric Level or PAL) above which aerobic microorganisms and facultative anaerobes adapt from fermentation to aerobic respiration.QuinazolinoneTriparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.Chloramphenicol acetyltransferaseOxymatrineLactamNanaerobe: Nanaerobes are organisms that cannot grow in the presence of micromolar concentrations of oxygen, but can grow with and benefit from the presence of nanomolar concentrations of oxygen (e.g.Adaptive mutation: Adaptive mutation is a controversial evolutionary theory. It posits that mutations, or genetic changes, are much less random and more purposeful than traditional evolution.Mycobacterium colombiense: Mycobacterium colombiense is a species of the phylum actinobacteria (Gram-positive bacteria with high guanine and cytosine content, one of the dominant phyla of all bacteria), belonging to the genus mycobacterium.SmeT: SmeT is a transcriptional repressor protein of 24.6 kDa found in the pathogen bacteria Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.Klebsiella pneumoniaBacterial outer membraneMycobacterium indicus pranii: Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP),Mycobacterium indicus pranii earlier known as Mw, is a non-pathogenic mycobacterial species, which, based on its growth characteristics and metabolic properties,Rahman SA, Singh Y, Kohli S, Ahmad J, Ehtesham NZ, Tyagi AK, Hasnain SE. 2014.Stanley SpiroCloaca (Capri): The Cloaca is an archaeological site on the island of Capri, Italy. It was part of a sewage system built in Roman times.Erythromycin 3''-O-methyltransferase: Erythromycin 3-O-methyltransferase (, EryG) is an enzyme with system name S-adenosyl-L-methionine:erythromycin C 3-O-methyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionPathogenic Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli ( Anglicized to ; commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).ClindamycinBeta-lactamaseCitrobacter amalonaticus: Citrobacter amalonaticus is a Gram-negative species of bacteria, a known human pathogen: it can cause neonatal meningitis and potentially gastroenteritis. It has been known to infect the urinary tract.Ewingella americana: Ewingella americana is a Gram-negative rod, and the only species in the genus Ewingella. It was first identified and characterized in 1983.CilastatinMycoplasma pneumoniae: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a very small bacterium in the class Mollicutes.