Regurgitant fraction: Regurgitant fraction is the percentage of blood that regurgitates back through the aortic valve to the left ventricle due to aortic insufficiency, or through the mitral valve to the atrium due to mitral insufficiency. It is measured as the amount of blood regurgitated into a cardiac chamber divided by the stroke volume.Ross procedureStenosis of pulmonary arteryAortic insufficiencyTricuspid insufficiencyAortic valve replacementMitral valve replacementHybrid cardiac surgery: A hybrid cardiac surgical procedure in a narrow sense is defined as a procedure that combines a conventional surgical part (including a skin incision) with an interventional part, using some sort of catheter-based procedure guided by fluoroscopy (or other, e.g.Nano RiantiarnoRobot-assisted double heart valve replacement: The first robotic-assisted double heart valve replacement was carried out in the Chennai region of India at Chettinad Hospital. Considered a rare form of surgery, this is the first instance of such a procedure using robotic surgery.Major aortopulmonary collateral artery: Major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (or MAPCAs) are arteries that develop to supply blood to the lungs when native pulmonary circulation is underdeveloped. Instead of coming from the pulmonary trunk, supply develops from the aorta and other systemic arteries.Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency: Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) is a form of adrenal insufficiency in critically ill patients who have blood corticosteroid levels which are inadequate for the severe stress response they experience. Combined with decreased glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity and tissue response to corticosteroids, this adrenal insufficiency constitutes a negative prognostic factor for intensive care patients.Afterload: Afterload is the pressure in the wall of the left ventricle during ejection. In other words, it is the end load against which the heart contracts to eject blood.Ventricular outflow tract obstruction: A ventricular outflow tract obstruction is one type of congenital heart defect in which either the right or left ventricular outflow tract is blocked or obstructed. These obstructions represent a spectrum of disorders.George Allan HancockBalloon catheter: A balloon catheter is a type of "soft" catheter with an inflatable "balloon" at its tip which is used during a catheterization procedure to enlarge a narrow opening or passage within the body. The deflated balloon catheter is positioned, then inflated to perform the necessary procedure, and deflated again in order to be removed.Perforator vein: Perforator veins are so called because they perforate the deep fascia of muscles, to connect the superficial veins to the deep veins where they drain.http://www.Ventricular septal defectCongenital heart defectPulmonary artery banding: Pulmonary Artery Banding (PAB) was introduced by Muller and Danimann in 1951 as a surgical technique to reduce excessive pulmonary blood flow in infants suffering from congenital heart defects.Muller WH, Dammann JF.Placental insufficiencyNonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis: Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) is a form of endocarditis in which small sterile vegetations are deposited on the valve leaflets. Formerly known as marantic endocarditis, which comes from the Greek marantikos, meaning “wasting away.Handgrip maneuver: The handgrip maneuver is performed by clenching one's fist forcefully for a sustained time until fatigued. Variations include squeezing an item such as a rolled up washcloth.Infective endocarditisCommissurotomy: A commissurotomy is a surgical incision of a commissure in the body, as one made in the heart at the edges of the commissure formed by cardiac valves, or one made in the brain to treat certain psychiatric disorders.Daniel NoonanTricuspid valve stenosisEchogenic intracardiac focus: Echogenic intracardiac focus (EIF) is a small bright spot seen in the baby’s heart on an ultrasound exam. This is thought to represent mineralization, or small deposits of calcium, in the muscle of the heart.Revision using distal inflow: Revision Using Distal Inflow (RUDI) is a surgical treatment for Dialysis-associated Steal Syndrome.OligohydramniosUmbilical cord prolapseVena contracta: frame|right|Vena contractaTransesophageal echocardiogramFibromaTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingAtrioventricular septal defectEpicanthic fold: Epicanthic fold (), epicanthal fold, epicanthus, or simply eye fold are names for a skin fold of the upper eyelid, covering the inner corner (medial canthus) of the eye. Other names for this trait include plica palpebronasalis and palpebronasal fold..Osler's node: Osler's nodes are painful, red, raised lesions found on the hands and feet. They are associated with a number of conditions, including infective endocarditis, and are caused by immune complex deposition.Septal myectomy: Septal myectomy is a cardiac surgery treatment for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The surgery entails removing a portion of the septum that is obstructing the flow of blood from the left ventricle to the aorta.Ductus venosus: In the fetus, the ductus venosus (Arantius' duct after Julius Caesar Aranzihttp://www.whonamedit.