Negative probability: The probability of the outcome of an experiment is never negative, but quasiprobability distributions can be defined that allow a negative probability for some events. These distributions may apply to unobservable events or conditional probabilities.Catalog of articles in probability theory: This page lists articles related to probability theory. In particular, it lists many articles corresponding to specific probability distributions.Inverse probability weighting: Inverse probability weighting is a statistical technique for calculating statistics standardized to a population different from that in which the data was collected. Study designs with a disparate sampling population and population of target inference (target population) are common in application.Hyperparameter: In Bayesian statistics, a hyperparameter is a parameter of a prior distribution; the term is used to distinguish them from parameters of the model for the underlying system under analysis.Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.Interval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
Vladimir Andreevich Markov: Vladimir Andreevich Markov (; May 8, 1871 – January 18, 1897) was a Russian mathematician, known for proving the Markov brothers' inequality with his older brother Andrey Markov. He died of tuberculosis at the age of 25.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingMonte Carlo methods for option pricing: In mathematical finance, a Monte Carlo option model uses Monte Carlo methods Although the term 'Monte Carlo method' was coined by Stanislaw Ulam in the 1940s, some trace such methods to the 18th century French naturalist Buffon, and a question he asked about the results of dropping a needle randomly on a striped floor or table. See Buffon's needle.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Doob decomposition theorem: In the theory of stochastic processes in discrete time, a part of the mathematical theory of probability, the Doob decomposition theorem gives a unique decomposition of every adapted and integrable stochastic process as the sum of a martingale and a predictable process (or "drift") starting at zero. The theorem was proved by and is named for Joseph L.Decoding methods: In coding theory, decoding is the process of translating received messages into codewords of a given code. There have been many common methods of mapping messages to codewords.Misattributed paternity: Misattributed paternity is the situation when a child’s putative father is not the child's biological father. Overall, the incidence of misattributed paternity ranges from about 1% to 2%, though it may be considerably higher in certain populations.Loss function: In mathematical optimization, statistics, decision theory and machine learning, a loss function or cost function is a function that maps an event or values of one or more variables onto a real number intuitively representing some "cost" associated with the event. An optimization problem seeks to minimize a loss function.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Value of control: The value of control is a quantitative measure of the value of controlling the outcome of an uncertainty variable. Decision analysis provides a means for calculating the value of both perfect and imperfect control.Patch clamp: The patch clamp technique is a laboratory technique in electrophysiology that allows the study of single or multiple ion channels in cells. The technique can be applied to a wide variety of cells, but is especially useful in the study of excitable cells such as neurons, cardiomyocytes, muscle fibers, and pancreatic beta cells.Robert E. Wittes: Robert E. Wittes was Physician-in-Chief of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, from 2002 until December 31, 2012.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Reversal potential: In a biological membrane, the reversal potential (also known as the Nernst potential) of an ion is the membrane potential at which there is no net (overall) flow of that particular ion from one side of the membrane to the other. In the case of post-synaptic neurons, the reversal potential is the membrane potential at which a given neurotransmitter causes no net current flow of ions through that neurotransmitter receptor's ion channel.Global Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) is a statistic used in cost-effectiveness analysis to summarise the cost-effectiveness of a health care intervention. It is defined by the difference in cost between two possible interventions, divided by the difference in their effect.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Model risk: In finance, model risk is the risk of loss resulting from using models to make decisions, initially and frequently referring to valuing financial securities. However model risk is more and more prevalent in industries other than financial securities valuation, such as consumer credit score, real-time probability prediction of a fraudulent credit card transaction to the probability of air flight passenger being a terrorist.Periodic current reversalMac OS X Server 1.0Disease burden: Disease burden is the impact of a health problem as measured by financial cost, mortality, morbidity, or other indicators. It is often quantified in terms of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) or disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), both of which quantify the number of years lost due to disease (YLDs).Recursive partitioning: Recursive partitioning is a statistical method for multivariable analysis. Recursive partitioning creates a decision tree that strives to correctly classify members of the population by splitting it into sub-populations based on several dichotomous independent variables. The process is termed recursive because each sub-population may in turn be split an indefinite number of times until the splitting process terminates after a particular stopping criterion is reached.Silent synapse: In neuroscience, a silent synapse is an excitatory glutamatergic synapse whose postsynaptic membrane contains NMDA-type glutamate receptors but no AMPA-type glutamate receptors. These synapses are named "silent" because normal AMPA receptor-mediated signaling is not present, rendering the synapse inactive under typical conditions.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.The Final Decision: The Final Decision is an episode from season 1 of the animated TV series X-Men Animated Series.Cortical stimulation mapping: Cortical stimulation mapping (often shortened to CSM) is a type of electrocorticography that involves a physically invasive procedure and aims to localize the function of specific brain regions through direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex. It remains one of the earliest methods of analyzing the brain and has allowed researchers to study the relationship between cortical structure and systemic function.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".PSI Protein Classifier: PSI Protein Classifier is a program generalizing the results of both successive and independent iterations of the PSI-BLAST program. PSI Protein Classifier determines belonging of the found by PSI-BLAST proteins to the known families.Bill Parry (mathematician)Calcium signaling: Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors.Carneau: The Carneau is a breed of pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding primarily as a utility breed. Carneau, along with other varieties of domesticated pigeons, are all descendants from the rock pigeon (Columba livia).Ventricular action potentialMatrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Potassium channel opener: A potassium channel opener is a type of drug which facilitates ion transmission through potassium channels.Regularized canonical correlation analysis: Regularized canonical correlation analysis is a way of using ridge regression to solve the singularity problem in the cross-covariance matrices of canonical correlation analysis. By converting \operatorname{cov}(X, X) and \operatorname{cov}(Y, Y) into \operatorname{cov}(X, X) + \lambda I_X and \operatorname{cov}(Y, Y) + \lambda I_Y, it ensures that the above matrices will have reliable inverses.Cancer survival rates: Cancer survival rates vary by the type of cancer, stage at diagnosis, treatment given and many other factors, including country. In general survival rates are improving, although more so for some cancers than others.STO-nG basis sets: STO-nG basis sets are minimal basis sets, where n primitive Gaussian orbitals are fitted to a single Slater-type orbital (STO). n originally took the values 2 - 6.Panmixia: Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.King C and Stanfield W.Penalized present value: The Penalized Present Value (PPV) is a method of Capital Budgeting under risk developed by Fernando Gómez-Bezares in the 1980s.Neurotransmitter: Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission. They transmit signals across a chemical synapse, such as in a neuromuscular junction, from one neuron (nerve cell) to another "target" neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell.Threshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.HSD2 neurons: HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. They are located within the caudal medulla oblongata, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).Infinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.Stretch-activated ion channel: Stretch-activated or stretch-gated ion channels are ion channels which open their pores in response to mechanical deformation of a neuron's plasma membrane. Also see mechanosensitive ion channels and mechanosensitive channels, with which they may be synonymous.Synaptic vesicleIncidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Ventilation/perfusion ratio: In respiratory physiology, the ventilation/perfusion ratio (or V/Q ratio) is a measurement used to assess the efficiency and adequacy of the matching of two variables:Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Conditional quantum entropy: The conditional quantum entropy is an entropy measure used in quantum information theory. It is a generalization of the conditional entropy of classical information theory.Pulmonary angiography: Pulmonary angiography (or pulmonary arteriography) is a cardiological medical procedure. Pulmonary blood vessels are x-rayed to detect arteriovenous malformations.Information bias (epidemiology): Information bias}}Electrical conductivity meterA-scan ultrasound biometry: A-scan ultrasound biometry, commonly referred to as an A-scan, is routine type of diagnostic test used in ophthalmology. The A-scan provides data on the length of the eye, which is a major determinant in common sight disorders.Outline of biophysics: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to biophysics:Reward system: The reward system is a group of neural structures that are critically involved in mediating the effects of reinforcement. A reward is an appetitive stimulus given to a human or some other animal to alter its behavior.