Premedication: Premedication refer to a drug treatment given to a patient before a (surgical or invasive) medical procedure. These drugs are typically sedative or analgesic.MidazolamLevomethadoneNonbenzodiazepine: Nonbenzodiazepines (sometimes referred to colloquially as "Z-drugs") are a class of psychoactive drugs that are very benzodiazepine-like in nature. Nonbenzodiazepines pharmacodynamics are almost entirely the same as benzodiazepine drugs and therefore employ similar benefits, side-effects, and risks.ClonidineAnxiolytic: An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety. This effect is in contrast to anxiogenic agents, which increase anxiety.Drug allergyPrednisolone/promethazine: The drug combination prednisolone/promethazine is an antidote for snake bites.PinnacleHealth System: $1 billion (2013)OhmefentanylCandy: Candy, also called sweets or lollies, is a confection that features sugar as a principal ingredient. The category, called sugar confectionery, encompasses any sweet confection, including chocolate, chewing gum, and sugar candy.General anaesthesia: General anaesthesia (or general anesthesia) is a medically induced coma and loss of protective reflexes resulting from the administration of one or more general anaesthetic agents. A variety of medications may be administered, with the overall aim of ensuring unconsciousness, amnesia, analgesia, relaxation of skeletal muscles, and loss of control of reflexes of the autonomic nervous system.International Federation of Dental Anesthesiology Societies: The International Federation of Dental Anesthesiology Societies (IFDAS) is a professional association established in 1976. IFDAS is devoted solely to promoting the safe and effective use of sedation and anesthesia by educationally qualified dentists for their patients.Nytol: Nytol is a brand of sleeping pill produced by Prestige Brands. The active ingredient is diphenhydramine hydrochloride, a sedative antihistamine.Placebo-controlled study: Placebo-controlled studies are a way of testing a medical therapy in which, in addition to a group of subjects that receives the treatment to be evaluated, a separate control group receives a sham "placebo" treatment which is specifically designed to have no real effect. Placebos are most commonly used in blinded trials, where subjects do not know whether they are receiving real or placebo treatment.Propofol infusion syndrome: Propofol infusion syndrome (PRIS) is a rare syndrome which affects patients undergoing long-term treatment with high doses of the anaesthetic and sedative drug propofol. It can lead to cardiac failure, rhabdomyolysis, metabolic acidosis, and kidney failure, and is often fatal.Tropic acidMaternal bond: A maternal bond or motherly bond is generally the relationship between a mother and her child.ClopidogrelMivazerolLanicemine: Lanicemine (AZD6765) is a low-trapping NMDA receptor antagonist developed by AstraZeneca, which was being studied for the management of severe and treatment-resistant depression. It was originally developed as a neuroprotective agent, but was redeveloped as an antidepressant following the observation that the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine has potent antidepressant effects, but also has hallucinogenic side effects which make it unsuitable for use as an antidepressant in most circumstances.Inhalational anaesthetic: An inhalational anaesthetic is a chemical compound possessing general anaesthetic properties that can be delivered via inhalation. They are administered by anaesthetists (a term which includes anaesthesiologists, nurse anaesthetists, and anaesthesiologist assistants) through an anaesthesia mask, laryngeal mask airway or tracheal tube connected to an anaesthetic vaporiser and an anaesthetic delivery system.History of tracheal intubation: Tracheal intubation (usually simply referred to as intubation), an invasive medical procedure, is the placement of a flexible plastic catheter into the trachea. For millennia, tracheotomy was considered the most reliable (and most risky) method of tracheal intubation.Iferanserin: Iferanserin (INN; VEN-309) is a drug which acts as a selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist. It is under development as an intra-rectal formulation for the treatment of hemorrhoid disease, and as of February 2012, is in phase IIb clinical trials.ClemastinePipamperoneLorazepamEPEOsmotic controlled-release oral delivery system: OROS (Osmotic [Controlled] Release Oral [Delivery] System) is a controlled release oral drug delivery system in the form of a tablet. The tablet has a rigid water-permeable jacket with one or more laser drilled small holes.Undecoylium chloride iodineOpium lampOptimax: Optimax is a UK-based laser eye treatment specialist which has 38 locations nationwide. Optimax was established as one of the first private clinics to offer laser eye surgery.Pronethalol: Pronethalol (Alderlin, Nethalide) was an early non-selective beta blocker clinical candidate. It was never used clinically due to carcinogenicity in mice, which was thought to result from formation of a carcinogenic naphthalene epoxide metabolite.SuccinylmonocholineAnesthesia cart: Anesthesia carts are hospital devices used to store tools that are necessary for aid during procedures that require administration of anesthesia. Anesthesia refers to the use of drugs to subdue a patient's mind and prevent him or her from feeling any pain during a surgical operation.Procedural sedation and analgesia: Procedural sedation and analgesia, previously referred to as conscious sedation, is defined as "a technique of administering sedatives or dissociative agents with or without analgesics to induce a state that allows the patient to tolerate unpleasant procedures while maintaining cardiorespiratory function."Hydrophile: A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to, and tends to be dissolved by, water.Liddell, H.GW-803,430: GW-803,430 (GW-3430) is a drug used in scientific research and is a selective non-peptide antagonist at the melanin concentrating hormone receptor MCH1. In animal studies it has anxiolytic, antidepressant and anorectic effects.Nitrous oxide and oxygen: A mix of nitrous oxide 50% and oxygen 50% is a medical analgesic gas, commonly known as Entonox (a registered trademark of BOC) or Nitronox, or colloquially as "gas and air", and is frequently used in pre-hospital care, childbirth and emergency medicine situations by medical professionals such as doctors, nurses, midwives and paramedics.Breast cancer chemotherapyCompound analgesic: Compound analgesics are those with multiple active ingredients; they include many of the stronger prescription analgesics.Interbeat interval: Interbeat interval is a scientific term used in the study of the mammalian heart.Hypervigilance: Hypervigilance is an enhanced state of sensory sensitivity accompanied by an exaggerated intensity of behaviors whose purpose is to detect threats. Hypervigilance is also accompanied by a state of increased anxiety which can cause exhaustion.Fake vomit: Fake vomit is a flat rubber or plastic disc with indentations and protrusions designed to look like mucus or vomit. It is a practical joke often used by pranksters to disgust victims.Soft lithography: In technology, soft lithography refers to a family of techniques for fabricating or replicating structures using "elastomeric stamps, molds, and conformable photomasks".In the words of Rogers and Nuzzo, p.Colpocleisis: Colpocleisis is a procedure involving closure of the vagina.Opioid: Opioids are substances that act on the nervous system in a similar way to opiates such as morphine and codeine. In a medical context the term usually indicates medications that are artificially made rather than extracted from opium.Spinal anaesthesia: Spinal anaesthesia (or spinal anesthesia), also called spinal analgesia, spinal block or subarachnoid block (SAB), is a form of regional anaesthesia involving injection of a local anaesthetic into the subarachnoid space, generally through a fine needle, usually 9 cm long (3.5 inches).SunifiramRomifidineMorphia (disambiguation): Morphia, also called morphine, is a highly potent opiate analgesic drug.Nausea (band): Nausea was an American crust punk band from New York City in the Lower East Side of Manhattan, active from 1985-1992. Nausea is usually cited as being integral in the rise of American crust punk, a fusion of anarcho-punk and thrash metal styles.Intraoperative radiation therapyCancer pain: Pain in cancer may arise from a tumor compressing or infiltrating nearby body parts; from treatments and diagnostic procedures; or from skin, nerve and other changes caused by a hormone imbalance or immune response. Most chronic (long-lasting) pain is caused by the illness and most acute (short-term) pain is caused by treatment or diagnostic procedures.DimefoxConcentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Aortic pressure: Central aortic blood pressure (CAP or CASP) is the blood pressure at the root of aorta. Studies have shown the importance of central aortic pressure and its implications in assessing the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment with respect to cardiovascular risk factors.Lidocaine: lignocaineDrug interaction: A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together. This action can be synergistic (when the drug's effect is increased) or antagonistic (when the drug's effect is decreased) or a new effect can be produced that neither produces on its own.Local anesthetic: Local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes reversible absence of pain sensation, although other senses are often affected as well. Also, when it is used on specific nerve pathways (local anesthetic nerve block), paralysis (loss of muscle power) can be achieved as well.Community-based clinical trial: Community-based clinical trials are clinical trials conducted directly through doctors and clinics rather than academic research facilities. They are designed to be administered through primary care physicians, community health centers and local outpatient facilities.
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