Polysaccharide encapsulated bacteriaBacterial capsule: The cell capsule is a very large structure of some prokaryotic cells, such as bacterial cells. It is a polysaccharide layer that lies outside the cell envelope of bacteria, and is thus deemed part of the outer envelope of a bacterial cell.Eutherian fetoembryonic defense system (eu-FEDS) hypothesis: The Eutherian Fetoembryonic Defense System (eu-FEDS) is a hypothetical model describing a method by which immune systems are capable of recognizing additional states of relatedness like "own species" such as is observed in maternal immune tolerance in pregnancy. The model includes descriptions of the proposed signaling mechanism and several proposed examples of exploitation of this signaling in disease states.PerosamineRhamnoseCell envelope: The cell envelope comprises the inner cell membrane and the cell wall of a bacterium, if present, plus a bacterial outer membrane, if one is present (i.e.MonosaccharideConjugate vaccine: A conjugate vaccine is created by covalently attaching a poor (polysaccharide) antigen to a carrier protein (preferably from the same microorganism), thereby conferring the immunological attributes of the carrier to the attached antigen.PectinSpin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame: Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame is the mechanism by which Mxy, the transverse component of the magnetization vector, exponentially decays towards its equilibrium value of zero, under the influence of a radio frequency (RF) field in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is characterized by the spin–lattice relaxation time constant in the rotating frame, T1ρ.Arabinogalactan: Arabinogalactan is a biopolymer consisting of arabinose and galactose monosaccharides. Two classes of arabinogalactans are found in nature: plant arabinogalactan and microbial arabinogalactan.Decyl polyglucose: Decyl polyglucose is a mild non-ionic synthetic surfactant. It is a type of alkylpolyglycoside derived from glucose or starch and the fatty alcohol decanol.Immunization during pregnancy: Immunization during pregnancy, that is the administration of a vaccine to a pregnant woman, is not a routine event as it is generally preferred to administer vaccines either prior to conception or in the postpartum period. When widespread vaccination is used, the risk for an unvaccinated pregnant patient to be exposed to a related infection is low, allowing for postponement, in general, of routine vaccinations to the postpartum period.Neisseria meningitidis: Neisseria meningitidis, often referred to as meningococcus, is a gram negative bacterium that can cause meningitis and other forms of meningococcal disease such as meningococcemia, a life-threatening sepsis. The bacterium is referred to as a coccus because it is round, and more specifically, diplococcus because of its tendency to form pairs.Glucuronoxylan: Glucuronoxylans are the primary components of hemicellulose as found in hardwood trees, for example birch.http://www.Coles PhillipsCarbohydrate chemistry: Carbohydrate chemistry is a subdiscipline of chemistry primarily concerned with the synthesis, structure, and function of carbohydrates. Due to the general structure of carbohydrates, their synthesis is often preoccupied with the selective formation of glycosidic linkages and the selective reaction of hydroxyl groups; as a result, it relies heavily on the use of protecting groups.Cryptococcus neoformans: Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast and an obligate aerobe that can live in both plants and animals. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans, a filamentous fungus belonging to the class Tremellomycetes.Sodium periodateGalactoseXyloglucan endotransglucosylase: Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) is an apoplastic enzyme found across the plant kingdom. The enzyme catalyzes the endotransglucosylation of two xyloglucan polysaccharides, effectively 'stitching' them together.Meningococcal vaccineGanoderic acidMannan: Mannan may refer to a plant polysaccharide that is a linear polymer of the sugar mannose. Plant mannans have β(1-4) linkages.N-linked glycosylation: N-linked glycosylation, is the attachment of the sugar molecule oligosaccharide known as glycan to a nitrogen atom (amide nitrogen of asparagine (Asn) residue of a protein), in a process called N-glycosylation, studied in biochemistry. This type of linkage is important for both the structure and function of some eukaryotic proteins.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Seaweed farming: Seaweed farming is the practice of cultivating and harvesting seaweed. In its simplest form, it consists of the management of naturally found batches.Streptococcus agalactiae: Streptococcus agalactiae (also known as Group B streptococcus or GBS) is a gram-positive coccus with a tendency to form chains (streptococcus), beta-hemolytic, catalase-negative, and facultative anaerobe. Streptococcus agalactiae is the species designation for streptococci belonging to the group B of the Rebecca Lancefield classification.Cryptococcus: Cryptococcus (Greek for "hidden sphere") is a genus of fungus. These fungi grow in culture as yeasts.CD4 immunoadhesin: CD4 immunoadhesin is a recombinant fusion protein consisting of a combination of CD4 and the fragment crystallizable region.List of glycoside hydrolase families: Glycoside hydrolases (O-Glycosyl hydrolases) are a widespread group of enzymes that hydrolyse the glycosidic bond between two or more carbohydrates, or between a carbohydrate and a non-carbohydrate moiety. A classification system for glycosyl hydrolases, based on sequence similarity, has led to the definition of numerous different families.Cellulose fiber: Cellulose fibers () are fibers made with ether or esters of cellulose, which can be obtained from the bark, wood or leaves of plants, or from a plant-based material. Besides cellulose, these fibers are compound of hemicellulose and lignin, and different percentages of these components are responsible for different mechanical properties observed.BiofilmSaccharolipidCAZy: CAZy is a database of Carbohydrate-Active enZYmes (CAZymes). The database contains a classification and associated information about enzymes involved in the synthesis, metabolism, and transport of carbohydrates.Radial immunodiffusion: Radial immunodiffusion (RID) or Mancini method, Mancini immunodiffusion or single radial immunodiffusion assay, is an immunodiffusion technique used in immunology to determine the quantity or concentration of an antigen in a sample. Antibody is incorporated into a medium such as an agar gel.Mannose 6-phosphateEcklonia stolonifera: Ecklonia stolonifera (Japanese: ツルアラメ, turuarame) is a brown alga species in the genus Ecklonia found in the Sea of Japan. It is an edible species traditionally eaten in Japan.Nanaerobe: Nanaerobes are organisms that cannot grow in the presence of micromolar concentrations of oxygen, but can grow with and benefit from the presence of nanomolar concentrations of oxygen (e.g.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.C4H7N3O3Potassium hexafluoronickelate(IV)List of GlaxoSmithKline products: This is a list of products manufactured by the multinational pharmaceutical, biologics, vaccines and consumer healthcare company GlaxoSmithKline.Streptococcus dysgalactiae: Streptococcus dysgalactiae is a species of Streptococcus.FucosePhagocytosis: In cell biology, phagocytosis ( (phagein) |to devour||, (kytos) |cell||-osis|process}}) is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal vesicle known as a phagosome. Phagocytosis was first noted by Canadian physician William Osler, and later studied by Élie Metchnikoff.Immobilized enzyme: An immobilized enzyme is an enzyme that is attached to an inert, insoluble material such as calcium alginate (produced by reacting a mixture of sodium alginate solution and enzyme solution with calcium chloride). This can provide increased resistance to changes in conditions such as pH or temperature.Starch gelatinization: Starch gelatinization is a process of breaking down the intermolecular bonds of starch molecules in the presence of water and heat, allowing the hydrogen bonding sites (the hydroxyl hydrogen and oxygen) to engage more water. This irreversibly dissolves the starch granule in water.Boletus auriflammeus: Boletus auriflammeus, commonly known as the flaming gold bolete, is a species of bolete fungus in the family Boletaceae. Described as new to science in 1872, it is found in eastern North America, where it grows in a mycorrhizal association with oaks.Disaccharide: A disaccharide or bioseBiose on www.merriam-webster.Size-exclusion chromatography: Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) is a chromatographic method in which molecules in solution are separated by their size, and in some cases molecular weight. It is usually applied to large molecules or macromolecular complexes such as proteins and industrial polymers.MannosamineMonosaccharide nomenclature: Monosaccharide nomenclature is a set of conventions used in chemistry to name the compounds known as monosaccharides or "simple sugars" — the basic structural units of carbohydrates, which cannot be hydrolysed into simpler units.Carbohydrate NomenclatureGum over platinum: Gum over platinum is a historical chemical photographic process, which was commonly used in art photography. It is a very complex process, in which a specially treated platinum print photograph is coated with washes of gum arabic, then re-exposed to the same photographic negative.Gentamicin protection assay: The gentamicin protection assay or survival assay or invasion assay is a method used in microbiology. It is used to quantify the ability of pathogenic bacteria to invade eukaryotic cells.GlucuronamideA-1,4-glucan-protein synthase (UDP-forming): Alpha-1,4-glucan-protein synthase (UDP-forming) (, UDP-glucose:protein glucosyltransferase, glycogen initiator synthase, UDPGlc:protein transglucosylase, UPTG, uridine diphosphoglucose protein transglucosylase I, proglycogen synthase, uridine diphosphoglucose-protein 4-alpha-glucosyltransferase, uridine diphosphoglucose-protein glucosyltransferase, UDP-glucose protein transglucosylase, UDP-glucose-protein glucosyltransferase, uridine diphosphate glucose-protein transglucosylase I) is an enzyme with system name UDP-glucose:protein 4-alpha-glucosyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionChitinMenAfriVac: MenAfriVac is a vaccine developed for use in sub-Saharan Africa that protects infants under one year old to people up to 29 years of age against meningococcal bacterium Neisseria meningitidis group A. MenAfriVac costs under US$0.Cryptic self epitopes: In immunology, cryptic self epitopes are a source of autoimmunity.Eva Engvall: Eva Engvall, born 1940, is one of the scientists who invented ELISA in 1971.Eva Engvall, The Scientist 1995, 9(18):8GlucosamineVirulence: Virulence is, by MeSH definition, the degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of parasites as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenicity of an organism - its ability to cause disease - is determined by its virulence factors.VaccinationBiotinylated dextran amine: Biotinylated dextran amines (BDA) are organic compounds used as anterograde and retrograde neuroanatomical tracers. They can be used for labeling the source as well as the point of termination of neural connections and therefore to study neural pathways.Heptose: A heptose is a monosaccharide with seven carbon atoms.Molar mass distribution: In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value. The molar mass distribution (or molecular weight distribution) in a polymer describes the relationship between the number of moles of each polymer species (Ni) and the molar mass (Mi) of that species.
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