PiperacillinExtended-spectrum penicillin: The extended-spectrum penicillins are a group of antibiotics that have the widest antibacterial spectrum of all penicillins.Comprehensive Pharmacy Review, Leon Shargel, 6th edition, p917 Some sources identify them with antipseudomonal penicillins,Elsevier's Integrated Review Pharmacology, By Mark Kester, Kelly Dowhower Karpa, Kent E.Ticarcillin/clavulanic acid: Ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, or co-ticarclav, is a combination antibiotic consisting of ticarcillin, a β-lactam antibiotic, and clavulanic acid, a β-lactamase inhibitor. This combination results in an antibiotic with an increased spectrum of action and restored efficacy against ticarcillin-resistant bacteria that produce certain β-lactamases.CarbenicillinBacitracinTobramycinUreidopenicillin: The ureidopenicillins are a group of penicillins which are active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Beta-lactamaseGyrA RNA motif: The gyrA RNA motif is a conserved RNA structure identified by bioinformatics. The RNAs are present in multiple species of bacteria within the order Pseudomonadales.CefoxitinLactamCefoperazoneAmpicillinClavulanic acidGentamicinDiscovery and development of cephalosporins: Cephalosporins are a broad class of bactericidal antibiotics that include the β-lactam ring and share a structural similarity and mechanism of action with other β-lactam antibiotics (e.g.AztreonamMultidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria: MDRGN bacteria is an abbreviation for multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria. For hospitalized patients, and especially patients in intensive care units, these bacterial infections pose a serious and (as of 2010) rapidly emerging threat.Combination therapy: Combination therapy or polytherapy is therapy that uses more than one medication or modality (versus monotherapy, which is any therapy taken alone). Typically, these terms refer to using multiple therapies to treat a single disease, and often all the therapies are pharmaceutical (although it can also involve non-medical therapy, such as the combination of medications and talk therapy to treat depression).External bacterial infection (fish): External bacterial infection is a condition found in fish.PanipenemMycena fonticola: Mycena fonticola is a species of fungus in the Mycenaceae family. First reported in 2007, it is known only from central Honshu, in Japan, where it grows on dead leaves and twigs in low-elevation forests dominated by oak trees.Exogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.Pseudomonas infectionKlebsiella terrigena: Klebsiella terrigena is a Gram-negative bacterial species of the genus Klebsiella. It has primarily been isolated from soil and water samples, but rarely from humans.AmikacinNanaerobe: Nanaerobes are organisms that cannot grow in the presence of micromolar concentrations of oxygen, but can grow with and benefit from the presence of nanomolar concentrations of oxygen (e.g.OrbifloxacinOxacephem: An oxacephem is a molecule similar to a cephem, but with oxygen substituted for the sulfur. They are synthetic compounds not seen in nature.KasugamycinCefotaximeGram-negative bacterial infection: Gram-negative bacterial infection refers to a disease caused by gram-negative bacteria. One example is E.Cloaca (Capri): The Cloaca is an archaeological site on the island of Capri, Italy. It was part of a sewage system built in Roman times.Procaine benzylpenicillinATC code S01: ==S01A Anti-infectives==BentazepamCephamycin: Cephamycins are a group of beta-lactam antibiotics. They are very similar to cephalosporins, and the cephamycins are sometimes classified as cephalosporins.Drug interaction: A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together. This action can be synergistic (when the drug's effect is increased) or antagonistic (when the drug's effect is decreased) or a new effect can be produced that neither produces on its own.Nisaea (genus): Nicaea}}