Diaphragm pacing: == Introduction ==Diaphragmatic excursion: Diaphragmatic excursion is the movement of the thoracic diaphragm during breathing.DimefoxHollander beater: A Hollander beater is a machine developed by the Dutch in 1680 to produce paper pulp from cellulose containing plant fibers. It replaced stamp mills for preparing pulp because the Hollander could produce in one day the same quantity of pulp it would take a stamp mill eight days to prepare.Sciatic nerve: The sciatic nerve (; also called ischiadic nerve, ischiatic nerve) is a large nerve in humans and other animals. It begins in the lower back and runs through the buttock and down the lower limb.Rostral ventromedial medulla: The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), or ventromedial nucleus of the spinal cord, is a group of neurons located close to the midline on the floor of the medulla oblongata (myelencephalon). The rostral ventromedial medulla sends descending inhibitory and excitatory fibers to the dorsal horn spinal cord neurons.Cheyne–Stokes respirationHypoglossal trigone: In the upper part of the medulla oblongata, the hypoglossal nucleus approaches the rhomboid fossa, where it lies close to the middle line, under an eminence named the hypoglossal trigone.Dorsal respiratory group: The dorsal respiratory group (DRG) is located in the dorsomedial region of the medulla, and is composed of cells in the solitary tract nucleus. The DRG is one of two known respiratory neuron localizations, with the other being the ventral respiratory group.Cortical stimulation mapping: Cortical stimulation mapping (often shortened to CSM) is a type of electrocorticography that involves a physically invasive procedure and aims to localize the function of specific brain regions through direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex. It remains one of the earliest methods of analyzing the brain and has allowed researchers to study the relationship between cortical structure and systemic function.Endoneurium: The endoneurium (also called endoneurial channel, endoneurial sheath, endoneurial tube, or Henle's sheath) is a layer of delicate connective tissue around the myelin sheath of each myelinated nerve fiber. Its component cells are called endoneurial cells.Cats in the United States: Many different species of mammal can be classified as cats (felids) in the United States. These include domestic cat (both house cats and feral), of the species Felis catus; medium-sized wild cats from the genus Lynx; and big cats from the genera Puma and Panthera.Renshaw cell: Renshaw cells are inhibitory interneurons found in the gray matter of the spinal cord, and are associated in two ways with an alpha motor neuron.DecerebrationHiccupNerve fiber layer: The retinal nerve fiber layer (nerve fiber layer, stratum opticum, RNFL) is formed by the expansion of the fibers of the optic nerve; it is thickest near the porus opticus, gradually diminishing toward the ora serrata.Muscles of respiration: In human physiology, the muscles of respiration are those muscles that contribute to inhalation and exhalation, by aiding in the expansion and contraction of the thoracic cavity. The diaphragm and, to a lesser extent, the intercostal muscles drive respiration during quiet breathing.Optic nerve tumor: An optic nerve melanocytoma is a tumor made up of melanocytes and melanin. These tumors are typically a benign; they can grow, but rarely transform into a malignancy.Central chemoreceptors: Central chemoreceptors of the central nervous system, located on the ventrolateral medullary surface in the vicinity of the exit of the 9th and 10th cranial nerves, are sensitive to the pH of their environment.Flaccid paralysisEpineurium: The epineurium is the outermost layer of dense irregular connective tissue surrounding a peripheral nerve. It usually surrounds multiple nerve fascicles as well as blood vessels which supply the nerve.Klumpke paralysisNeurotmesis: Neurotmesis (in Greek tmesis signifies "to cut") is part of Seddon's classification scheme used to classify nerve damage. It is the most serious nerve injury in the scheme.Neuroregeneration: Neuroregeneration refers to the regrowth or repair of nervous tissues, cells or cell products. Such mechanisms may include generation of new neurons, glia, axons, myelin, or synapses.Neutron magnetic moment: The neutron magnetic moment is the intrinsic magnetic dipole moment of the neutron, symbol μn. Protons and neutrons, both nucleons, comprise the nucleus of atoms, and both nucleons behave as small magnets whose strengths are measured by their magnetic moments.Aging movement control: Normal aging movement control in humans is about the changes on the muscles, motor neurons, nerves, sensory functions, gait, fatigue, visual and manual responses, in men and women as they get older but who do not have neurological, muscular (atrophy, dystrophy...) or neuromuscular disorder.Chicago Electrical Trauma Research Institute: The Chicago Electrical Trauma Research Institute(CETRI) |url=http://www.cetri.Nerve blockElectroneuronography: Electroneuronography or electroneurography (ENoG) is a neurological non-invasive test that was first described by Esslen and Fisch in 1979 and is used to examine the integrity and conductivity of a peripheral nerve. It consists of a brief electrical stimulation of the nerve in one point underneath the skin, and at the same time recording the electrical activity (compound action potentials) at another point of the nerve's trajectory in the body.Compound muscle action potential: The compound muscle action potential (CMAP) or compound motor action potential is an electromyography investigation (electrical study of muscle function).End-plate potential: End plate potentials (EPPs) are the depolarizations of skeletal muscle fibers caused by neurotransmitters binding to the postsynaptic membrane in the neuromuscular junction. They are called "end plates" because the postsynaptic terminals of muscle fibers have a large, saucer-like appearance.Central tegmental tract: The central tegmental tractKamali A, Kramer LA, Butler IJ, Hasan KM. Diffusion tensor tractography of the somatosensory system in the human brainstem: initial findings using high isotropic spatial resolution at 3.Withdrawal reflex: The withdrawal reflex (nociceptive or flexor withdrawal reflex) is a spinal reflex intended to protect the body from damaging stimuli. It is polysynaptic, causing stimulation of sensory, association, and motor neurons.VincristineNerve biopsyMedian nerve: The median nerve is a nerve in humans and other animals in the upper limb. It is one of the five main nerves originating from the brachial plexus.List of countries by carbon dioxide emissionsCarotid body: The carotid body (carotid glomus or glomus caroticum) is a small cluster of chemoreceptors and supporting cells located near the fork (bifurcation) of the carotid artery (which runs along both sides of the throat).Bobby Crush: Bobby Crush (born Robert Nicholas Crush, 23 March 1954) is an English pianist, songwriter, actor and television presenter, originally from Leyton in East London.Ventricular action potentialNeuromere: Neuromeres are morphologically or molecularly defined transient segments of the early developing brain. Rhombomeres are such segments that make up the rhombencephalon or hindbrain.Martin-Gruber Anastomosis: The Martin-Gruber Anastomosis (or Martin-Gruber Connection) is a communicating nerve branch between the median nerve and the ulnar nerve in the forearm. It is the most common anastomotic anomaly that occurs between these two nerves.Superior cluneal nerves: The superior cluneal nerves innervate the skin of the upper part of the buttocks. They are the terminal ends of lateral rami of the posterior rami of lumbar spinal nerves (L1, 2, 3).Monomelic amyotrophy: Monomelic amyotrophy (MMA), also known as Hirayama disease, Sobue disease, juvenile non-progressive amyotrophy and juvenile asymmetric segmental spinal muscular atrophy (JASSMA) — is an untreatable, focal motor neuron disease that primarily affects young (15- to 25-year-old) males in India and Japan. MMA is marked by insidious onset of muscular atrophy, which stabilizes at a plateau after two to five years from which it neither improves nor worsens.Cranial nerve examinationCostovertebral angleExpiratory apnea: Expiratory apnea is a voluntary condition performed by a patient during a doctor's examination. By breathing out and then holding one's breath, it gets easier for the doctor to perform an auscultation of the heart with a stethoscope.Advanced Pediatric Life Support: Advanced Pediatric Life Support (APLS) is a program created by the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Emergency Physicians to teach health care providers how to take care of sick children.Hypoxic hypoxia: Hypoxic hypoxia is a result of insufficient oxygen available to the lungs. A blocked airway, a drowning or a reduction in partial pressure (high altitude above 10,000 feet) are examples of how lungs can be deprived of oxygen.Musculocutaneous nerve: The musculocutaneous nerve arises from the lateral cord of the brachial plexus, opposite the lower border of the pectoralis major, its fibers being derived from C5, C6 and C7.Sodium cyanideMuscle contraction: Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers. In physiology, muscle contraction does not mean muscle shortening because muscle tension can be produced without changes in muscle length such as holding a heavy book or a dumbbell at the same position.Nicholas Horner: Nicholas Horner (died 4 March 1590) was an English Roman Catholic layman, hanged, drawn and quartered because he had relieved and assisted Christopher Bales, a seminary priest. He is a Catholic martyr, beatified in 1987.Transpulmonary pressure: Transpulmonary pressure is the difference between the alveolar pressure and the intrapleural pressure in the lungs. During human ventilation, air flows because of pressure gradients.Acute esophageal necrosisPermissive hypercapnia: Permissive hypercapnia is hypercapnia, (i.e.Periodic current reversalCarotid sinus: In human anatomy, the carotid sinus (or carotid bulb) is a dilated area at the base of the internal carotid just superior to the bifurcation of the common carotid at the level of the superior border of thyroid cartilage. The carotid sinus is sensitive to pressure changes in the arterial blood at this level.Trigeminovascular system: The trigeminovascular system consists of neurons in the trigeminal nerve that innervate cerebral blood vessels. It has been hypothesized that the trigeminovascular system may be involved in some types of headaches.CinanserinAxon guidance: Axon guidance (also called axon pathfinding) is a subfield of neural development concerning the process by which neurons send out axons to reach the correct targets. Axons often follow very precise paths in the nervous system, and how they manage to find their way so accurately is being researched.Trochlear nerve: The trochlear nerve,, ) come from Ancient Greek also called the fourth cranial nerve or cranial nerve IV, is a motor nerve] (a [[somatic nervous system|somatic efferent nerve) that innervates only a single muscle: the superior oblique muscle of the eye, which operates through the pulley-like trochlea.Kennel clubCephalic phase: The cephalic phase of gastric secretion occurs even before food enters the stomach, especially while it is being eaten. It results from the sight, smell, thought, or taste of food, and the greater the appetite, the more intense is the stimulation.Plateau pressure: Plateau pressure (PPLAT) is the pressure applied to small airways and alveoli during positive-pressure mechanical ventilation.Morgan, Edward G.Triangular interval: The triangular interval (also known as the lateral triangular space,Photo at tufts.edu lower triangular space, and triceps hiatus) is a space found in the axilla.Vocal cord paresisRehabilitation in spinal cord injury: When treating a person with a spinal cord injury, repairing the damage created by injury is the ultimate goal. By using a variety of treatments, greater improvements are achieved, and, therefore, treatment should not be limited to one method.Cervical fractureGas analysis: Gas analysis could refer to any of the following:Luis Gabriel Cano: Luis Gabriel Cano Isaza (1924-2010)El Espectador obituary (In Spanish) was the President and publisher of El Espectador who won the Golden Pen of Freedom Award in 1990 for his writings on the cocaine traffic. His brother Guillermo, who had also worked on the paper, had been assassinated by drug gangs.Sacral anterior root stimulator: An implantable medical device enabling patients with a spinal cord lesion to empty their bladders.Infraglottic cavity: The infraglottic cavity is the portion of the larynx below the laryngeal ventricles and the rima glottidis.Serotonergic cell groups: Serotonergic cell groups refer to collections of neurons in the central nervous system that have been demonstrated by histochemical fluorescence to contain the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine). Since they are for the most part localized to classical brainstem nuclei, particularly the raphe nuclei, they are more often referred to by the names of those nuclei than by the B1-9 nomenclature.