Patch clamp: The patch clamp technique is a laboratory technique in electrophysiology that allows the study of single or multiple ion channels in cells. The technique can be applied to a wide variety of cells, but is especially useful in the study of excitable cells such as neurons, cardiomyocytes, muscle fibers, and pancreatic beta cells.Reversal potential: In a biological membrane, the reversal potential (also known as the Nernst potential) of an ion is the membrane potential at which there is no net (overall) flow of that particular ion from one side of the membrane to the other. In the case of post-synaptic neurons, the reversal potential is the membrane potential at which a given neurotransmitter causes no net current flow of ions through that neurotransmitter receptor's ion channel.Potassium channel opener: A potassium channel opener is a type of drug which facilitates ion transmission through potassium channels.Periodic current reversalStretch-activated ion channel: Stretch-activated or stretch-gated ion channels are ion channels which open their pores in response to mechanical deformation of a neuron's plasma membrane. Also see mechanosensitive ion channels and mechanosensitive channels, with which they may be synonymous.Electrical conductivity meterVoltage-dependent calcium channel: Voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC) are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in the membrane of excitable cells (e.g.Calcium signaling: Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors.Ventricular action potentialPotassium channel blocker: Potassium channel blockers are agents which interfere with conduction through potassium channels.Sodium channel: Sodium channels are integral membrane proteins that form ion channels, conducting sodium ions (Na+) through a cell's plasma membrane. They are classified according to the trigger that opens the channel for such ions, i.Chloride channel: C:88-438, A:88-438, B:88-438, F:88-438, A:88-438, B:88-438, B:88-438, A:88-438, B:88-438, B:88-438, B:88-438Trans-tubular potassium gradient: The trans-tubular potassium gradient (TTKG) is an index reflecting the conservation of potassium in the cortical collecting ducts (CCD) of the kidneys. It is useful in diagnosing the causes of hyperkalemia or hypokalemia.Ablomin: Ablomin is a toxin present in the venom of the Japanese Mamushi snake, which blocks L-type voltage-gated calcium channels.ATC code C08: ==C08C Selective calcium channel blockers with mainly vascular effects==HSD2 neurons: HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. They are located within the caudal medulla oblongata, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).Tetraethylammonium chlorideVoltage-gated potassium channel database: VKCDB (Voltage-gated potassium Channel DataBase) is a database of functional data about the voltage-gated potassium channels.A. N. Hartley: Annie Norah Hartley (1902 – 1994), usually known simply as Norah Hartley, was a dog breeder and the first female board member of the Kennel Club.Caesium bromideHyperchloremiaConcentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Tertiapin: Tertiapin is a 21-amino acid peptide isolated from venom of the European honey bee (Apis mellifera). It blocks two different types of potassium channels, inward rectifier potassium channels (Kir) and calcium activated large conductance potassium channels (BK).XEN-D0101: XEN-D0101 is a drug that was developed to treat atrial fibrillation. Xention, a biopharmaceutical company based in Cambridge, United Kingdom, created XEN-D0101 along with other ion channel-modulating drugs.Bay K8644Fractional sodium excretion: The fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) is the percentage of the sodium filtered by the kidney which is excreted in the urine. It is measured in terms of plasma and urine sodium, rather than by the interpretation of urinary sodium concentration alone, as urinary sodium concentrations can vary with water reabsorption.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Inhibitor protein: The inhibitor protein (IP) is situated in the mitochondrial matrix and protects the cell against rapid ATP hydrolysis during momentary ischaemia. In oxygen absence, the pH of the matrix drops.Myocytolysis: Myocytolysis refers to a degenerative change (often reversible) that occurs to myocytes upon myocardial strain. This phenomenon tends to occur when neighboring cardiac muscle loses its ability to contract (i.PivagabineCortical stimulation mapping: Cortical stimulation mapping (often shortened to CSM) is a type of electrocorticography that involves a physically invasive procedure and aims to localize the function of specific brain regions through direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex. It remains one of the earliest methods of analyzing the brain and has allowed researchers to study the relationship between cortical structure and systemic function.Achy Breaky HeartBarium orthotitanate: Barium orthotitanate is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ba2TiO4. It is a colourless solid that is of interest because of its relationship to barium titanate, a useful electroceramic.NifedipineCalcium-activated potassium channel: Calcium-activated potassium channels are potassium channels gated by calcium, or are structurally or phylogenetically related to calcium gated channels. In humans they are divided into BK channels, IK channels, and SK channels based on their conductance (big, intermediate, and small conductance).Org 20599Margatoxin: Margatoxin (MgTX) is a peptide that selectively inhibits Kv1.3 voltage-dependent potassium channels.Film capacitor: Film capacitors, plastic film capacitors, film dielectric capacitors, or polymer film capacitors, generically called “film caps” as well as power film capacitors, are electrical capacitors with an insulating plastic film as the dielectric, sometimes combined with paper as carrier of the electrodes. The dielectric films, depending on the desired dielectric strength, are drawn in a special process to an extremely thin thickness, and are then provided with electrodes.List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543): This is a sub-part (membrane proteins only) of List of MeSH codes (D12.776), itself a part of the list of the "D" codes for MeSH.Cell membraneSpinel group: The spinels are any of a class of minerals of general formulation A2+B3+2O2−4 which crystallise in the cubic (isometric) crystal system, with the oxide anions arranged in a cubic close-packed lattice and the cations A and B occupying some or all of the octahedral and tetrahedral sites in the lattice. Although the charges of A and B in the prototypical spinel structure are +2 and +3, respectively, other combinations incorporating divalent, trivalent, or tetravalent cations, including magnesium, zinc, iron, manganese, aluminium, chromium, titanium, and silicon, are also possible.Excitotoxicity: Excitotoxicity is the pathological process by which nerve cells are damaged or killed by excessive stimulation by neurotransmitters such as glutamate and similar substances. This occurs when receptors for the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate (glutamate receptors) such as the NMDA receptor and AMPA receptor are overactivated by glutamatergic storm.Calcium encodingLeft atrial enlargement: Left atrial enlargement (LAE) or left atrial dilation refers to enlargement of the left atrium (LA) of the heart, and is a form of cardiomegaly.New Zealand rabbitSK channel: SK channels (Small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels) are a subfamily of Ca2+-activated K+ channels. They are so called because of their small single channel conductance in the order of 10 pS.E-4031: E-4031 is an experimental class III antiarrhythmic drug that blocks potassium channels of the hERG-type.Kim I, Boyle KM, Carrol JL (2005) Postnatal development of E-4031-sensitive potassium current in rat carotid chemoreceptor cells.CGP-37849Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingColforsinGlycine (plant): Glycine is a genus in the bean family Fabaceae. The best known species is the soybean (Glycine max).Acetylcholine receptorPhoneutria nigriventer toxin-3: Phoneutria nigriventer toxin-3 is more commonly referred to as PhTx3.Place cellGABAA-rho receptor: The GABAA-rho receptor (previously known as the GABAC receptor) is a subclass of GABAA receptors composed entirely of rho (ρ) subunits. GABAA receptors including those of the ρ-subclass are ligand-gated ion channels responsible for mediating the effects of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain.MuscarineTandem pore domain potassium channel: The two-pore-domain potassium channel (not to be confused with the small family of two-pore channels) a family of 15 members form what is known as "leak channels" which possess Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz (open) rectification. These channels are regulated by several mechanisms including oxygen tension, pH, mechanical stretch, and G-proteins .HantzschPlateau potentials: Plateau potentials, caused by persistent inward currents (PICs), are a type of electrical behaviour seen by cells in the spinal cord. They are of particular importance to spinal motor systems.Silent synapse: In neuroscience, a silent synapse is an excitatory glutamatergic synapse whose postsynaptic membrane contains NMDA-type glutamate receptors but no AMPA-type glutamate receptors. These synapses are named "silent" because normal AMPA receptor-mediated signaling is not present, rendering the synapse inactive under typical conditions.
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