Parathyroid hormone family: The parathyroid hormone family is a family of structurally and functionally related proteins. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a polypeptidic hormone primarily involved in calcium metabolism.Sestamibi parathyroid scintigraphyParathyroid neoplasmParathyroid hormone-related protein: Parathyroid hormone-related protein (or PTHrP) is a protein member of the parathyroid hormone family. It is occasionally secreted by cancer cells (breast cancer, certain types of lung cancer including squamous cell lung carcinoma).HyperparathyroidismParathyroiditis: Parathyroiditis is a condition involving inflammation of the parathyroid gland.TeriparatideTuberoinfundibular pathway: The tuberoinfundibular pathway refers to a population of dopamine neurons in the arcuate nucleus (aka "infundibular nucleus") in the tuberal region of the hypothalamus that project to the pituitary median eminence (the "infundibular region"). It is one of the four major dopamine pathways in the brain.CinacalcetFamilial hypocalciuric hypercalcemiaHypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia: Hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia (HSH) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder affecting intestinal magnesium absorption. Decreased intestinal magnesium reabsorption and the resulting decrease in serum magnesium levels is believed to cause lowered parathyroid hormone (PTH) output by the parathyroid gland.HypoparathyroidismHormone: A hormone (from Greek , "impetus") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour. Hormones have diverse chemical structures, mainly of 3 classes: eicosanoids, steroids, and amino acid derivatives (amines, peptides, and proteins).Calcium signaling: Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors.Phosphorus deficiency: Phosphorus deficiency is a plant disorder associated with insufficient supply of phosphorus. Phosphorus refers here to salts of phosphates (PO43−), monohydrogen phosphate (HPO42−), and dihydrogen phosphate (H2PO4−).Sodium hexametaphosphateCancellous bone: Cancellous bone, synonymous with trabecular bone or spongy bone, is one of two types of osseous tissue that form bones. The other osseous tissue type is cortical bone also called compact bone.Vitamin DProcalcitonin: Procalcitonin (PCT) is a peptide precursor of the hormone calcitonin, the latter being involved with calcium homeostasis. It is composed of 116 amino acids and is produced by parafollicular cells (C cells) of the thyroid and by the neuroendocrine cells of the lung and the intestine.Thyroid hormone: The thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and its prohormone, thyroxine (T4), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland that are primarily responsible for regulation of metabolism. T3 and T4 are partially composed of iodine (see molecular model).Thyroid adenomaOsteoblastDeoxypyridinolineUremiaQuantitative computed tomographyHypovitaminosis DCalcifediolCrosstalk (biology): Biological crosstalk refers to instances in which one or more components of one signal transduction pathway affects another. This can be achieved through a number of ways with the most common form being crosstalk between proteins of signalling cascades.OsteodystrophyThyroidectomyNathan W. LevinElevated alkaline phosphataseDialysis adequacy: In nephrology, dialysis adequacy is the measurement of renal dialysis for the purpose of determining dialysis treatment regime and to better understand the pathophysiology of renal dialysis. It is an area of considerable controversy in nephrology.Calcium deficiency (plant disorder): Calcium (Ca) deficiency is a plant disorder that can be caused by insufficient calcium in the growing medium, but is more frequently a product of low transpiration of the whole plant or more commonly the affected tissue. Plants are susceptible to such localized calcium deficiencies in low or nontranspiring tissues because calcium is not transported in the phloem.Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue: A gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRH analogue or analog), also known as a luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonist (LHRH agonist) or LHRH analogue is a synthetic peptide drug modeled after the human hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). A GnRH analogue is designed to interact with the GnRH receptor and modify the release of pituitary gonadotropins FSH and LH for therapeutic purposes.Monosodium phosphateTumor-induced osteomalacia: Tumor-induced osteomalacia, also known as oncogenic hypophosphatemic osteomalacia or oncogenic osteomalacia, is an uncommon disorder resulting in increased renal phosphate excretion, hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia.Amorphous calcium carbonate: Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is the amorphous and least stable polymorph of calcium carbonate. ACC is monohydrate and is so unstable under normal conditions that aside from several specialized organisms it is not found naturally.Kidney: The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates. They remove excess organic molecules from the blood, and it is by this action that their best-known function is performed: the removal of waste products of metabolism.Growth hormone treatment: Growth hormone treatment refers to the use of growth hormone (GH) as a prescription medication—it is one form of hormone therapy. Growth hormone is a peptide hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that stimulates growth and cell reproduction.HyperkalemiaHyperplasia: Hyperplasia (from ancient Greek ὑπέρ huper, "over" + πλάσις plasis, "formation"), or hypergenesis, is an increase in the amount of organic tissue that results from cell proliferation. It may lead to the gross enlargement of an organ and the term is sometimes confused with benign neoplasia or benign tumor.World Osteoporosis Day: World Osteoporosis Day is observed annually on 20 October, and launches a year-long campaign dedicated to raising global awareness of the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis and metabolic bone disease. Organized by the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF), World Osteoporosis Day involves campaigns by national osteoporosis patient societies from around the world with activities in over 90 countries.Hormone receptor: A hormone receptor is a molecule that can bind to a specific hormone. Receptors for peptide hormones tend to be found on the plasma membrane of cells, whereas receptors for lipid-soluble hormones are usually found within the cytoplasm.Technetium (99mTc) sestamibiPhosphate binder: Phosphate binders are medications used to reduce the absorption of phosphate and taken with meals and snacks. They are typically used in people with chronic kidney failure (CKF) as they often have difficulty getting rid of the phosphates that get into their blood (i.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingOssificationMature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.List of minerals (complete): Mineralogy is an active science in which minerals are discovered or recognised on a regular basis. Use of old mineral names is also discontinued, for example when a name is no longer considered valid.Magnesium (pharmaceutical preparation): Magnesium, as a pharmaceutical preparation, is used to treat conditions including magnesium deficiency and hypomagnesemia, as well as eclampsia. Magnesium is important to health.Bone pathology: Bone pathology, also known as orthopedic pathology is a subspecialty of surgical pathology which deals with the diagnosis and feature of many bone diseases. It uses gross and microscopic findings along with the findings of in vivo radiological studies, and occasionally, specimen radiographs to diagnose diseases of the bones.Cyclase-associated protein family: In molecular biology, the cyclase-associated protein family (CAP) is a family of highly conserved actin-binding proteins present in a wide range of organisms including yeast, flies, plants, and mammals. CAPs are multifunctional proteins that contain several structural domains.Biomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.Calcimimetic: A calcimimetic is a drug that mimics the action of calcium on tissues, by allosteric activation of the calcium-sensing receptor that is expressed in various human organ tissues. Calcimimetics are used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT).Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Renal cortexOsteoclastHormone replacement therapy (menopause)Lattice protein: Lattice proteins are highly simplified computer models of proteins which are used to investigate protein folding.Alendronic acidErgogenic use of anabolic steroidsOsteocyteFGF15/19: FGF15/19 refers to two orthologous fibroblast growth factors which share 50% aminoacid identity and have similar functions.OsteosarcomaConcentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.
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