Thermal grill illusion: The thermal grill illusion is a sensory illusion originally demonstrated in 1896 by the Swedish physician Torsten Thunberg. The illusion is created by an interlaced grill of warm (e.Cancer pain: Pain in cancer may arise from a tumor compressing or infiltrating nearby body parts; from treatments and diagnostic procedures; or from skin, nerve and other changes caused by a hormone imbalance or immune response. Most chronic (long-lasting) pain is caused by the illness and most acute (short-term) pain is caused by treatment or diagnostic procedures.Hypoalgesia: Hypoalgesia or hypalgesia denotes a decreased sensitivity to painful stimuli.Immaculate perception: The expression immaculate perception has been used in various senses by various philosophers.Pain scale: A pain scale measures a patient's pain intensity or other features. Pain scales are based on self-report, observational (behavioral), or physiological data.Nociceptor: A nociceptor is a sensory neuron (nerve cell) that responds to potentially damaging stimuli by sending signals to the spinal cord and brain. This process, called nociception, usually causes the perception of pain.Chronic painCongenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis: Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA), also called hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV—is an extremely rare inherited disorder of the nervous system which prevents the sensation of pain, heat, cold, or any real nerve-related sensations (including feeling the need to urinate); however, patients can still feel pressure. CIPA is the fourth type of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN), known as HSAN IV.Preventive analgesia: Preventive analgesia is a practice aimed at reducing short- and long-term post-surgery pain. Activity in the body's pain signalling system during surgery produces "sensitization"; that is, it increases the intensity of post-operative pain.Low back painOpioid-induced hyperalgesia: Opioid-induced hyperalgesia or opioid-induced abnormal pain sensitivity, also called paradoxical hyperalgesia is a phenomenon associated with the long term use of opioids such as morphine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, and methadone. Over time, individuals taking opioids can develop an increasing sensitivity to noxious stimuli, even evolving a painful response to previously non-noxious stimuli (allodynia).Compound analgesic: Compound analgesics are those with multiple active ingredients; they include many of the stronger prescription analgesics.Percolation threshold: Percolation threshold is a mathematical concept related to percolation theory, which is the formation of long-range connectivity in random systems. Below the threshold a giant connected component does not exist; while above it, there exists a giant component of the order of system size.Fishpaper: Fish paper or fishpaper is a strong, flexible, fibrous dielectric paper. It resists moderate heat and mechanical injury, and is often used for wrapping coils and insulating stove-top parts.Biological motion: Biological motion is a term used by social and cognitive neuroscientists to refer to the unique visual phenomenon of a moving, animate object. Often, the stimuli used in biological motion experiments are just a few moving dots that reflect the motion of some key joints of the moving organism.Fritz Heider: Fritz Heider (February 19, 1896 – January 2, 1988)American Psychologist., "Fritz Heider (1896 - 1988)".Lidocaine: lignocaineNeuropathic painPlacebo studies: Placebo studies is an interdisciplinary academic discipline concerning the study of the placebo effect. The placebo effect is commonly characterized when patients given a placebo or "fake" treatment exhibit a perceived improvement.Avijit Lahiri: Avijit Lahiri is a researcher in cardiology[http://www.journals.Opioid: Opioids are substances that act on the nervous system in a similar way to opiates such as morphine and codeine. In a medical context the term usually indicates medications that are artificially made rather than extracted from opium.FormicationPelvic congestion syndrome: Pelvic congestion syndrome (also known as pelvic vein incompetence) is a chronic medical condition in women caused by varicose veins in the lower abdomen. The condition causes chronic pain, often manifesting as a constant dull ache, which can be aggravated by standing.Secondary somatosensory cortex: The human secondary somatosensory cortex (S2, SII) is a region of cortex in the parietal operculum on the ceiling of the lateral sulcus.Stereopsis: Stereopsis (from the Greek στερεο- [meaning "solid", and ὄψις] opsis, "appearance, [[visual perception|sight") is a term that is most often used to refer to the perception of depth and 3-dimensional structure obtained on the basis of visual information deriving from two eyes by individuals with normally developed binocular vision.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Local anesthetic: Local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes reversible absence of pain sensation, although other senses are often affected as well. Also, when it is used on specific nerve pathways (local anesthetic nerve block), paralysis (loss of muscle power) can be achieved as well.Cardiac syndrome X: Cardiac syndrome X is angina (chest pain) with signs associated with decreased blood flow to heart tissue but with normal coronary arteries. Cardiac syndrome X is sometimes referred to as microvascular angina when there are findings of microvascular dysfunction.Auditory scene analysis: In psychophysics, auditory scene analysis (ASA) is a proposed model for the basis of auditory perception. This is understood as the process by which the human auditory system organizes sound into perceptually meaningful elements.Cold shock response: Cold shock response is the physiological response of organisms to sudden cold, especially cold water.Fibromyalgia: – FibromyalgiaHyperintensityLaser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a type of atomic emission spectroscopy which uses a highly energetic laser pulse as the excitation source. The laser is focused to form a plasma, which atomizes and excites samples.FormaldehydeNon-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingEmotion and memory: Emotion can have a powerful response on humans and animals. Numerous studies have shown that the most vivid autobiographical memories tend to be of emotional events, which are likely to be recalled more often and with more clarity and detail than neutral events.DihydrocapsaicinTranspulmonary pressure: Transpulmonary pressure is the difference between the alveolar pressure and the intrapleural pressure in the lungs. During human ventilation, air flows because of pressure gradients.Precise Time and Time Interval: Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) is a Department of Defense Military Standard which details a mechanism and waveform for distributing highly accurate timing information.Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain: The Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain is a quarterly Peer review-peer-reviewed medical journal covering research on chronic muscle and bone pain, including fibromyalgia, myofascial pain, and other types of musculoskeletal pain. It is published by Informa Healthcare.Morphia (disambiguation): Morphia, also called morphine, is a highly potent opiate analgesic drug.Hypervigilance: Hypervigilance is an enhanced state of sensory sensitivity accompanied by an exaggerated intensity of behaviors whose purpose is to detect threats. Hypervigilance is also accompanied by a state of increased anxiety which can cause exhaustion.Placebo-controlled study: Placebo-controlled studies are a way of testing a medical therapy in which, in addition to a group of subjects that receives the treatment to be evaluated, a separate control group receives a sham "placebo" treatment which is specifically designed to have no real effect. Placebos are most commonly used in blinded trials, where subjects do not know whether they are receiving real or placebo treatment.Pitch spaceKorte's law: In psychophysics, Korte's law, also known more completely as Korte's third law of apparent motion, is an observation relating the phenomenon of apparent motion to the distance and duration between two successively presented stimuli. It was originally proposed in 1915 by Adolf Korte.Nonbenzodiazepine: Nonbenzodiazepines (sometimes referred to colloquially as "Z-drugs") are a class of psychoactive drugs that are very benzodiazepine-like in nature. Nonbenzodiazepines pharmacodynamics are almost entirely the same as benzodiazepine drugs and therefore employ similar benefits, side-effects, and risks.Cortical stimulation mapping: Cortical stimulation mapping (often shortened to CSM) is a type of electrocorticography that involves a physically invasive procedure and aims to localize the function of specific brain regions through direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex. It remains one of the earliest methods of analyzing the brain and has allowed researchers to study the relationship between cortical structure and systemic function.Subatomic scale: The subatomic scale is the domain of physical size that encompasses objects smaller than an atom. It is the scale at which the atomic constituents, such as the nucleus containing protons and neutrons, and the electrons, which orbit in spherical or elliptical paths around the nucleus, become apparent.Neuromere: Neuromeres are morphologically or molecularly defined transient segments of the early developing brain. Rhombomeres are such segments that make up the rhombencephalon or hindbrain.TBR1: T-box, brain, 1 is a transcription factor protein important in vertebrate embryo development. It is encoded by the TBR1 gene.TRPV1: The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TrpV1), also known as the capsaicin receptor and the vanilloid receptor 1, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the TRPV1 gene. It was the first isolated member of the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor proteins that in turn are a sub-family of the transient receptor potential protein group.SC-17599Stressor: A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Auditory illusion: An auditory illusion is an illusion of hearing, the aural equivalent of an optical illusion: the listener hears either sounds which are not present in the stimulus, or "impossible" sounds.