Arteriovenous oxygen difference: The arteriovenous oxygen difference, or a-vO2 diff, is the difference in the oxygen content of the blood between the arterial blood and the venous blood. It is an indication of how much oxygen is removed from the blood in capillaries as the blood circulates in the body.Respirometer: A respirometer is a device used to measure the rate of respiration of a living organism by measuring its rate of exchange of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide. They allow investigation into how factors such as age, chemicals or the effect of light affect the rate of respiration.Mitochondrial ROS: Mitochondrial ROS (mtROS or mROS) are reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are produced by mitochondria. Generation of mitochondrial ROS mainly takes place at the electron transport chain located on the inner mitochondrial membrane during the process of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS).Portable oxygen concentratorPhotoinhibition: Photoinhibition is light-induced reduction in the photosynthetic capacity of a plant, alga, or cyanobacterium. Photosystem II (PSII) is more sensitive to light than the rest of the photosynthetic machinery, and most researchers define the term as light-induced damage to PSII.THC-O-phosphateRichard A Neubauer: Richard Allen Neubauer (16 January 1924–11 June 2007), was a physician known for his work in the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy.Pulmonary gas pressures: The factors that determine the values for alveolar pO2 and pCO2 are:Hypoxic hypoxia: Hypoxic hypoxia is a result of insufficient oxygen available to the lungs. A blocked airway, a drowning or a reduction in partial pressure (high altitude above 10,000 feet) are examples of how lungs can be deprived of oxygen.Vaporized hydrogen peroxide: Vaporized hydrogen peroxide — also known as hydrogen peroxide vapor, HPV, and by the trademarked name VHP — is a vapor form of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with applications as a low-temperature antimicrobial vapor used to decontaminate enclosed and sealed areas such as laboratory workstations, isolation and pass-through rooms, and even aircraft interiors.Table of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.Nellcor: Nellcor is a brand of pulse oximetry systems sold by the Medtronic Corporation, following its acquisition of Covidien.TroloxList of countries by carbon dioxide emissionsObligate aerobe: 300px|thumb|Aerobic and anaerobic [[bacteria can be identified by growing them in test tubes of thioglycollate broth: 1: Obligate aerobes need oxygen because they cannot ferment or respire anaerobically. They gather at the top of the tube where the oxygen concentration is highest.Superoxide dismutase: Superoxide dismutase (SOD, ) is an enzyme that alternately catalyzes the dismutation (or partitioning) of the superoxide (O2−) radical into either ordinary molecular oxygen (O2) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Superoxide is produced as a by-product of oxygen metabolism and, if not regulated, causes many types of cell damage.Hemoglobin, alpha 2: Hemoglobin, alpha 2 also known as HBA2 is a gene that in humans codes for the alpha globin chain of hemoglobin.Free-radical reaction: A free-radical reaction is any chemical reaction involving free radicals. This reaction type is abundant in organic reactions.Mitochondrion: The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. The word mitochondrion comes from the Greek , , i.Catalase: Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms exposed to oxygen (such as bacteria, plants, and animals). It catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen.Hyperoxia test: A hyperoxia test is a test that is performed—usually on an infant—to determine whether the patient's cyanosis is due to lung disease or a problem with blood circulation.:141Tetratricopeptide: B:89-122 A:522-555 B:228-261McIntosh and Filde's anaerobic jar: McIntosh and Filde's anaerobic jar is an instrument used in the production of an anaerobic environment. This method of anaerobiosis as others is used to culture bacteria which die or fail to grow in presence of oxygen (anaerobes).Potassium superoxideGas analysis: Gas analysis could refer to any of the following:Dropping mercury electrode: The dropping mercury electrode (DME) is a working electrode made of mercury and used in polarography. Experiments run with mercury electrodes are referred to as forms of polarography even if the experiments are identical or very similar to a corresponding voltammetry experiment which uses solid working electrodes.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingDioxetane: A dioxetane or dioxacyclobutane is an organic compound with formula C2O2H4, whose backbone is a four-membered ring of two oxygen atoms and two carbon atoms. There are two isomers:Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.Blood substitute: A blood substitute (also called artificial blood or blood surrogates) is a substance used to mimic and fulfill some functions of biological blood. It aims to provide an alternative to blood transfusion, which is transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into another.DimefoxXanthine oxidase inhibitor: A xanthine oxidase inhibitor is any substance that inhibits the activity of xanthine oxidase, an enzyme involved in purine metabolism. In humans, inhibition of xanthine oxidase reduces the production of uric acid, and several medications that inhibit xanthine oxidase are indicated for treatment of hyperuricemia and related medical conditions including gout.NitrotyrosineAlkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Treadmill: A treadmill is a device generally for walking or running while staying in the same place. Treadmills were introduced before the development of powered machines, to harness the power of animals or humans to do work, often a type of mill that was operated by a person or animal treading steps of a treadwheel to grind grain.Electron transfer: Electron transfer (ET) occurs when an electron moves from an atom or a chemical species (e.g.Zero field splitting: Zero field splitting describes various interactions of the energy levels of an electron spin (S>1/2) even in the absence of an applied magnetic field. It is important in the electron spin resonance of biological molecules.Hypoxia-inducible factor-asparagine dioxygenase: Hypoxia-inducible factor-asparagine dioxygenase (, HIF hydroxylase) is an enzyme with system name hypoxia-inducible factor-L-asparagine, 2-oxoglutarate:oxygen oxidoreductase (4-hydroxylating). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionFairweather LodgeHydroxylGlucose transporterInterbeat interval: Interbeat interval is a scientific term used in the study of the mammalian heart.Lipid peroxidationOxidative phosphorylation: Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) is the metabolic pathway in which the mitochondria in cells use their structure, enzymes, and energy released by the oxidation of nutrients to reform ATP. Although the many forms of life on earth use a range of different nutrients, ATP is the molecule that supplies energy to metabolism.Potassium selective electrode: Potassium selective electrodes are a type of ion selective electrode used in biochemical and biophysical research, where measurements of potassium concentration in an aqueous solution are required, usually on a real time basis.Cerebral blood flow: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is the blood supply to the brain in a given period of time.Tolias C and Sgouros S.Glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family: In molecular biology, the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family (GMC oxidoreductase) is a family of enzymes with oxidoreductase activity.Breath carbon monoxide: Breath carbon monoxide is the level of carbon monoxide in a person's exhalation. It can be measured in a breath carbon monoxide test, generally by using a carbon monoxide breath monitor (breath CO monitor), such as for motivation and education for smoking cessation and also as a clinical aid in assessing carbon monoxide poisoning.Air sensitivity: Air sensitivity is a term used, particularly in chemistry, to denote the reactivity of chemical compounds with some constituent of air. Most often, reactions occur with atmospheric oxygen (O2) or water vapor (H2O),Handling and Storage of Air-Sensitive Reagents, Technical Bulletin AL-134, Sigma-Aldrich although reactions with the other constituents of air such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrogen (N2) are also possible.Near-infrared spectroscopyMyoglobin: Myoglobin is an iron- and oxygen-binding protein found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates in general and in almost all mammals. It is related to hemoglobin, which is the iron- and oxygen-binding protein in blood, specifically in the red blood cells.Cardiac function curve: A cardiac function curve is a graph showing the relationship between right atrial pressure (x-axis) and cardiac output (y-axis).Helium-3High-intensity interval training: High-intensity interval training (HIIT), also called high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) or sprint interval training (SIT), is an enhanced form of interval training, an exercise strategy alternating short periods of intense anaerobic exercise with less-intense recovery periods. HIIT is a form of cardiovascular exercise.Concentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Spectrophotometry: In chemistry, spectrophotometry is the quantitative measurement of the reflection or transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength.Allen, D.Myocytolysis: Myocytolysis refers to a degenerative change (often reversible) that occurs to myocytes upon myocardial strain. This phenomenon tends to occur when neighboring cardiac muscle loses its ability to contract (i.Lake MarathonEthernet flow control: Ethernet flow control is a mechanism for temporarily stopping the transmission of data on Ethernet family computer networks. The first flow control mechanism, the PAUSE frame, was defined by the IEEE 802.Trimethyloxonium tetrafluoroborateHeme arginateLung receptor: Lung receptors sense irritation or inflammation in the bronchi and alveoli.Motexafin gadoliniumNitrous oxide and oxygen: A mix of nitrous oxide 50% and oxygen 50% is a medical analgesic gas, commonly known as Entonox (a registered trademark of BOC) or Nitronox, or colloquially as "gas and air", and is frequently used in pre-hospital care, childbirth and emergency medicine situations by medical professionals such as doctors, nurses, midwives and paramedics.Iron stress repressed RNA: Iron stress repressed RNA (IsrR) is a cis-encoded antisense RNA which regulates the expression of the photosynthetic protein isiA. IsiA expression is activated by the Ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) under iron stress conditions.Aortic pressure: Central aortic blood pressure (CAP or CASP) is the blood pressure at the root of aorta. Studies have shown the importance of central aortic pressure and its implications in assessing the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment with respect to cardiovascular risk factors.Ascorbic acidNecrobiology: Necrobiology comprises the life processes associated with morphological, biochemical, and molecular changes which predispose, precede, and accompany cell death, as well as the consequences and tissue response to cell death. The word is derived from the Greek νεκρό meaning "death", βìο meaning "life", and λόγος meaning "the study of".Myokine: A myokine is one of several hundred cytokines or other small proteins (~5–20 kDa) and proteoglycan peptides that are produced and released by muscle cells (myocytes) in response to muscular contractions.Bente Klarlund Pedersen , Thorbjörn C.Outline of water: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to water:Maladaptation: A maladaptation () is a trait that is (or has become) more harmful than helpful, in contrast with an adaptation, which is more helpful than harmful. All organisms, from bacteria to humans, display maladaptive and adaptive traits.Grow lightInhibitor protein: The inhibitor protein (IP) is situated in the mitochondrial matrix and protects the cell against rapid ATP hydrolysis during momentary ischaemia. In oxygen absence, the pH of the matrix drops.