Table of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.Liquid junction potential: Liquid junction potential occurs when two solutions of different concentrations are in contact with each other. The more concentrated solution will have a tendency to diffuse into the comparatively less concentrated one.Dithionous acidSpectrophotometry: In chemistry, spectrophotometry is the quantitative measurement of the reflection or transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength.Allen, D.Ferrocyanide: Ferrocyanide is the name of the anion [Fe(CN)6]4−. Salts of this coordination complex give yellow solutions.FerricyanideElectron transfer: Electron transfer (ET) occurs when an electron moves from an atom or a chemical species (e.g.Cytochrome C1: Cytochrome C1 is formed in the cytosol and targeted to the mitochondrial intermembrane space. It is one of the constituents of complex III, which forms the third proton pump in the mitochondrial electron transport chain.Flavin groupFerredoxin: Ferredoxins (from Latin ferrum: iron + redox, often abbreviated "fd") are iron-sulfur proteins that mediate electron transfer in a range of metabolic reactions. The term "ferredoxin" was coined by D.DihydrolipoamideOxidoreductase FAD-binding domain: B:7-104 B:7-104 B:7-104FnrS RNA: FnrS RNA is a family of Hfq-binding small RNA whose expression is upregulated in response to anaerobic conditions. It is named FnrS because its expression is strongly dependent on fumarate and nitrate reductase regulator (FNR), a direct oxygen availability sensor.Staphylococcus saccharolyticus: Staphylococcus saccharolyticus is a Gram positive, coagulase-positive, anaerobic member of the bacterial genus Staphylococcus consisting of single and clustered cocci. The species was formerly known as Peptococcus saccharolyticus but was reclassified on the basis of 16S ribosomal RNA and biochemical similarity to other members of Staphylococcus.Zero field splitting: Zero field splitting describes various interactions of the energy levels of an electron spin (S>1/2) even in the absence of an applied magnetic field. It is important in the electron spin resonance of biological molecules.Dropping mercury electrode: The dropping mercury electrode (DME) is a working electrode made of mercury and used in polarography. Experiments run with mercury electrodes are referred to as forms of polarography even if the experiments are identical or very similar to a corresponding voltammetry experiment which uses solid working electrodes.Flavoprotein: Flavoproteins are proteins that contain a nucleic acid derivative of riboflavin: the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) or flavin mononucleotide (FMN).Rossmann foldBurst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".McIntosh and Filde's anaerobic jar: McIntosh and Filde's anaerobic jar is an instrument used in the production of an anaerobic environment. This method of anaerobiosis as others is used to culture bacteria which die or fail to grow in presence of oxygen (anaerobes).Alkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Heme arginateNADH:ubiquinone reductase (non-electrogenic): NADH:ubiquinone reductase (non-electrogenic) (, ubiquinone reductase, coenzyme Q reductase, dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-coenzyme Q reductase, DPNH-coenzyme Q reductase, DPNH-ubiquinone reductase, NADH-coenzyme Q oxidoreductase, NADH-coenzyme Q reductase, NADH-CoQ oxidoreductase, NADH-CoQ reductase) is an enzyme with system name NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionDesmethylsertraline: Desmethylsertraline (DMS) is an active metabolite of the antidepressant drug sertraline. Like sertraline, desmethylsertraline acts as a monoamine reuptake inhibitor, and may be responsible for some of its parent's therapeutic benefits.Amphibacillus xylanus: Amphibacillus xylanus or A. xylanus is a gram-positive-spore forming bacterium with cells 0.Indole-5,6-quinonePotassium cyanidePerchloromethyl mercaptanBill Parry (mathematician)Chlorella pyrenoidosa: Chlorella pyrenoidosa is a species of the freshwater green algae genus Chlorella. It occurs world wide.Methemoglobin: Methemoglobin (English: methaemoglobin) (pronounced "met-hemoglobin") is a form of the oxygen-carrying metalloprotein hemoglobin, in which the iron in the heme group is in the Fe3+ (ferric) state, not the Fe2+ (ferrous) of normal hemoglobin. Methemoglobin cannot bind oxygen, unlike oxyhemoglobin.Iron stress repressed RNA: Iron stress repressed RNA (IsrR) is a cis-encoded antisense RNA which regulates the expression of the photosynthetic protein isiA. IsiA expression is activated by the Ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) under iron stress conditions.Arteriovenous oxygen difference: The arteriovenous oxygen difference, or a-vO2 diff, is the difference in the oxygen content of the blood between the arterial blood and the venous blood. It is an indication of how much oxygen is removed from the blood in capillaries as the blood circulates in the body.Molybdenum: Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42. The name is from Neo-Latin molybdaenum, from Ancient Greek , meaning lead, since its ores were confused with lead ores.Amicyanin: Amicyanin is a type I copper protein that plays an integral role in electron transfer. In bacteria such as Paracoccus denitrificans, amicyanin is part of a three-member redox complex, along with methylamine dehydrogenase (MADH) and cytochrome c-551i.Glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family: In molecular biology, the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family (GMC oxidoreductase) is a family of enzymes with oxidoreductase activity.Prokaryotic riboflavin biosynthesis protein: In molecular biology, the prokaryotic riboflavin biosynthesis protein is a bifunctional enzyme found in bacteria.Sulfide:quinone reductase: Sulfide:quinone reductase () is an enzyme with system name sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionIron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis protein family: In molecular biology, the iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis protein family of includes proteins involved in biogenesis of Fe-S clusters (iron-sulfur cluster insertion protein, Fe/S biogenesis protein). This family includes IscA, HesB, YadR and YfhF-like proteins.RotenoneAscorbic acidOxidative phosphorylation: Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) is the metabolic pathway in which the mitochondria in cells use their structure, enzymes, and energy released by the oxidation of nutrients to reform ATP. Although the many forms of life on earth use a range of different nutrients, ATP is the molecule that supplies energy to metabolism.Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Chemical modification: ==Chemical modification in chemistry==DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Coenzyme Q – cytochrome c reductaseBipolar electrochemistry: Bipolar electrochemistry is a phenomenon in electrochemistry based on the polarization of conducting objects in electric fields. Indeed, this polarization generates a potential difference between the two extremities of the substrate that is equal to the electric field value multiplied by the size of the object.DsbC protein family: DsbC (Disulfide bond C) is a prokaryotic disulfide bond isomerase. The formation of native disulfide bonds play an important role in the proper folding of proteins and stabilize tertiary structures of the protein.Canadian Thoroughbred Horse Society: The Canadian Thoroughbred Horse Society (CTHS) is an organization headquartered in Toronto, Canada that was founded in 1906 to assist Thoroughbred horse breeders. Since 1982, there have been provincial divisions in Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Saskatchewan.C4H7N3O3Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can be later released to fuel the organisms' activities. This chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules, such as sugars, which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water – hence the name photosynthesis, from the Greek [phōs, "light", and σύνθεσις], synthesis, "putting together".Obligate aerobe: 300px|thumb|Aerobic and anaerobic [[bacteria can be identified by growing them in test tubes of thioglycollate broth: 1: Obligate aerobes need oxygen because they cannot ferment or respire anaerobically. They gather at the top of the tube where the oxygen concentration is highest.Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Database of protein conformational diversity: The Database of protein conformational diversity (PCDB) is a database of diversity of protein tertiary structures within protein domains as determined by X-ray crystallography. Proteins are inherently flexible and this database collects information on this subject for use in molecular research.Respirometer: A respirometer is a device used to measure the rate of respiration of a living organism by measuring its rate of exchange of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide. They allow investigation into how factors such as age, chemicals or the effect of light affect the rate of respiration.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Standard enthalpy of formation: The standard enthalpy of formation or standard heat of formation of a compound is the change of enthalpy during the formation of 1 mole of the compound from its constituent elements, with all substances in their standard states at 1 atmosphere (1 atm or 101.3 kPa).Proteinogenic amino acid: Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are precursors to proteins, and are incorporated into proteins cotranslationally — that is, during translation. There are 23 proteinogenic amino acids in prokaryotes (including N-Formylmethionine, mainly used to initiate protein synthesis and often removed afterward), but only 21 are encoded by the nuclear genes of eukaryotes.Exogenous bacteria: Exogenous bacteria are microorganisms introduced to closed biological systems from the external world. They exist in aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as the atmosphere.Myocytolysis: Myocytolysis refers to a degenerative change (often reversible) that occurs to myocytes upon myocardial strain. This phenomenon tends to occur when neighboring cardiac muscle loses its ability to contract (i.Grow lightSpin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame: Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame is the mechanism by which Mxy, the transverse component of the magnetization vector, exponentially decays towards its equilibrium value of zero, under the influence of a radio frequency (RF) field in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is characterized by the spin–lattice relaxation time constant in the rotating frame, T1ρ.Eagle's minimal essential medium: Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM) is a cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle that can be used to maintain cells in tissue culture.X-ray magnetic circular dichroismPermissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Inhibitor protein: The inhibitor protein (IP) is situated in the mitochondrial matrix and protects the cell against rapid ATP hydrolysis during momentary ischaemia. In oxygen absence, the pH of the matrix drops.Liver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIMolar mass distribution: In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value. The molar mass distribution (or molecular weight distribution) in a polymer describes the relationship between the number of moles of each polymer species (Ni) and the molar mass (Mi) of that species.Mitochondrion: The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. The word mitochondrion comes from the Greek , , i.Ethyl groupProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Coles Phillips