Scanning laser ophthalmoscopyLaser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a type of atomic emission spectroscopy which uses a highly energetic laser pulse as the excitation source. The laser is focused to form a plasma, which atomizes and excites samples.Outline of photography: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to photography:Purtscher's retinopathy: Purtscher's retinopathy is a disease where part of the eye (retina) is damaged. Usually associated with severe head injuries, it may also occur with other types of trauma, such as long bone fractures, or with several non-traumatic systemic diseases.Photoacoustic effectCoherence theory: In physics, coherence theory is the study of optical effects arising from partially coherent light and radio sources. Partially coherent sources are sources where the coherence time or coherence length are limited by bandwidth, by thermal noise, or by other effect.Optic disc: The optic disc or optic nerve head is the point of exit for ganglion cell axons leaving the eye. BecauseNeuro-ophthalmology: Neuro-ophthalmology is an academically-oriented subspecialty that merges the fields of neurology and ophthalmology, often dealing with complex systemic diseases that have manifestations in the visual system. Neuro-ophthalmologists initially complete a residency in either neurology or ophthalmology, then do a fellowship in the complementary field.Hypertensive retinopathyRetinal regeneration: Retinal regeneration deals with restoring retinal function to vertebrates so impaired.Plaque-forming unit: In virology, a plaque-forming unit (PFU) is a measure of the number of particles capable of forming plaques per unit volume, such as virus particles. It is a functional measurement rather than a measurement of the absolute quantity of particles: viral particles that are defective or which fail to infect their target cell will not produce a plaque and thus will not be counted.FulminateVitreous membrane: The vitreous membrane (or hyaloid membrane or vitreous cortex) is a layer of collagen separating the vitreous humour from the rest of the eye. At least two parts have been identified anatomically.LogMAR chart: A LogMAR chart comprises rows of letters and is used by ophthalmologists and vision scientists to estimate visual acuity. This chart was developed at the National Vision Research Institute of Australia in 1976, and is designed to enable a more accurate estimate of acuity as compared to other charts (e.Pediatric ophthalmology: Pediatric ophthalmology is a sub-speciality of ophthalmology concerned with eye diseases, visual development, and vision care in children.Electrical impedance tomography: Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a non-invasive medical imaging technique in which an image of the conductivity or permittivity of part of the body is inferred from surface electrode measurements. Electrical conductivity depends on free ion content and differs considerably between various biological tissues (absolute EIT) or different functional states of one and the same tissue or organ (relative or functional EIT).Macula of retina: The macula or macula lutea (from Latin macula, "spot" + lutea, "yellow") is an oval-shaped pigmented area near the center of the retina of the human eye. It has a diameter of around .Posterior vitreous detachment: A posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) is a condition of the eye in which the vitreous membrane separates from the retina.Retinal haemorrhageDiabetic retinopathy: ( )Charles D. Phelps: Charles Dexter Phelps (September 16, 1937 – September 13, 1985) was a prominent American medical doctor, professor, and researcher in the field of ophthalmology. The clinical studies he oversaw contributed to significant advances in the scientific understanding and surgical and pharmacological treatment of glaucoma.ScotomaMeridian (perimetry, visual field): Meridian (plural: "meridians") is used in perimetry and in specifying visual fields. According to IPS Perimetry Standards 1978 (2002): "Perimetry is the measurement of [an observer's] visual functions ...Serpiginous: Serpiginous, often referring to some chronic medical affliction, signifies it as slowly progressive or "creeping", such as ringworm. Regarding skin ailments in particular, this means that such a disease leaves scar tissue below while continuing to affect the skin above.Avo PhotonicsLevobetaxololOperation Eyesight Universal: Operation Eyesight Universal is a Canada-based international development organisation, founded in 1963. It works to prevent avoidable blindness and to cure blindness that is treatable.Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis: Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN) is a rare condition that occurs in otherwise healthy, often young patients and is due to the presence of a subretinal nematode.Red reflex: The red reflex refers to the reddish-orange reflection of light from the eye's retina that is observed when using an ophthalmoscope or retinoscope from approximately 30 cm / 1 foot. This examination is usually performed in a dimly lit or dark room.Micromirror device: Micromirror devices are devices based on microscopically small mirrors. The mirrors are Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), which means that their states are controlled by applying a voltage between the two electrodes around the mirror arrays.Proliferative vitreoretinopathy: Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a disease that develops as a complication of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. PVR occurs in about 8–10% of patients undergoing primary retinal detachment surgery and prevents the successful surgical repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.Intraocular pressureGlossmeter: A glossmeter (also gloss meter) is an instrument which is used to measure specular reflection gloss of a surface. Gloss is determined by projecting a beam of light at a fixed intensity and angle onto a surface and measuring the amount of reflected light at an equal but opposite angle.Nerve fiber layer: The retinal nerve fiber layer (nerve fiber layer, stratum opticum, RNFL) is formed by the expansion of the fibers of the optic nerve; it is thickest near the porus opticus, gradually diminishing toward the ora serrata.Optic disc drusenRon Gallemore: Ron P. Gallemore is a registered ophthalmologist with the American Academy of OphthalmologyThe American Academy of Ophthalmology Dr Ron Gallemore certification involved in research and treatment of diseases of the macula and retina.Potocki–Shaffer syndrome: Potocki–Shaffer syndrome (PSS), also known as DEFECT11 syndrome or chromosome 11p11.2 deletion syndrome, is a rare contiguous gene syndrome that results from the microdeletion of section 11.Eye injuryBeta encoder: A beta encoder is an analog to digital conversion (A/D) system in which a real number in the unit interval is represented by a finite representation of a sequence in base beta, with beta being a real number between 1 and 2. Beta encoders are an alternative to traditional approaches to pulse code modulation.Age-Related Eye Disease Study: The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) was a clinical trial sponsored by the National Eye Institute, one of the National Institutes of Health in the United States.A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Clinical Trial of High-Dose Supplementation With Vitamins C and E, Beta Carotene, and Zinc for Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Vision Loss.Optic disc pit: An optic disc pit is a congenital excavation (or regional depression) of the optic nerve head resulting from a malformation during development of the eye. Optic pits are important because they are associated with posterior vitreous detachments (PVD) and even serous retinal detachments.Mauna Kea Technologies: Mauna Kea Technologies is a global medical device company focused on leading innovation in endomicroscopy, the field of microscopic imaging during endoscopy procedures. The company researches, develops and markets tools to visualize, detect and rule out abnormalities including malignant and pre-malignant tumors or lesions in the gastrointestinal and pulmonary tracts.Blind People's Association: The Blind People’s Association (BPA) is an organisation in India which promotes comprehensive rehabilitation of persons with all categories of disabilities through education, training, employment, community based rehabilitation, integrated education, research, publications, human resource development and other innovative means.Macular edemaImbert-Fick law: The Imbert-Fick "law" was invented by Hans Goldmann (1899–1991) to give his newly marketed tonometer (with the help of the Haag-Streit Company) a quasi-scientific basis; it is mentioned in the ophthalmic and optometric literature, but not in any books of physics. According to Goldmann,Goldmann H.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Neuropathy, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa