Nitrate reductase (NADPH): Nitrate reductase (NADPH) (, assimilatory nitrate reductase, assimilatory reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-nitrate reductase, NADPH-nitrate reductase, assimilatory NADPH-nitrate reductase, triphosphopyridine nucleotide-nitrate reductase, NADPH:nitrate reductase, nitrate reductase (NADPH2), NADPH2:nitrate oxidoreductase) is an enzyme with system name nitrite:NADP+ oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalises the following chemical reactionFNR regulon: The fnr (fumarate and nitrate reductase) gene of Escherichia coli encodes a transcriptional activator (FNR) which is required for the expression of a number of genes involved in anaerobic respiratory pathways. The FNR (Fumarate and Nitrate reductase Regulatory) protein of E.Nitrate reductase (NAD(P)H): Nitrate reductase (NAD(P)H) (, assimilatory nitrate reductase, assimilatory NAD(P)H-nitrate reductase, NAD(P)H bispecific nitrate reductase, nitrate reductase (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate)), nitrate reductase NAD(P)H, NAD(P)H-nitrate reductase, nitrate reductase [NAD(P)H2], NAD(P)H2:nitrate oxidoreductase) is an enzyme with system name nitrite:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalises the following chemical reactionPeroxynitrous acidChlorateMolybdenum: Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42. The name is from Neo-Latin molybdaenum, from Ancient Greek , meaning lead, since its ores were confused with lead ores.Chlorella pyrenoidosa: Chlorella pyrenoidosa is a species of the freshwater green algae genus Chlorella. It occurs world wide.Glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family: In molecular biology, the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family (GMC oxidoreductase) is a family of enzymes with oxidoreductase activity.PteridineAldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase: In enzymology, an aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase () is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reactionHMG-CoA reductase: HMG-CoA reductase (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, officially abbreviated HMGCR) is the rate-controlling enzyme (NADH-dependent, ; NADPH-dependent, ) of the mevalonate pathway, the metabolic pathway that produces cholesterol and other isoprenoids. Normally in mammalian cells this enzyme is suppressed by cholesterol derived from the internalization and degradation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) via the LDL receptor as well as oxidized species of cholesterol.Cofactor Engineering: Cofactor engineering, a subset of metabolic engineering, is defined as the manipulation of the use of cofactors in an organism’s metabolic pathways. In cofactor engineering, the concentrations of cofactors are changed in order to maximize or minimize metabolic fluxes.Ribonucleotide: In biochemistry, a ribonucleotide or ribotide is a nucleotide containing ribose as its pentose component. It is considered a molecular precursor of nucleic acids.HyponitriteCytochrome b5 reductaseMcIntosh and Filde's anaerobic jar: McIntosh and Filde's anaerobic jar is an instrument used in the production of an anaerobic environment. This method of anaerobiosis as others is used to culture bacteria which die or fail to grow in presence of oxygen (anaerobes).Sodium tungstateFlavoprotein pyridine nucleotide cytochrome reductases: A:229-424 A:229-424 A:985-1214Table of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.FMN reductase (NADPH): FMN reductase (NADPH) (, FRP, flavin reductase P, SsuE) is an enzyme with system name FMNH2:NADP+ oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction:Thioredoxin reductaseList of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.FnrS RNA: FnrS RNA is a family of Hfq-binding small RNA whose expression is upregulated in response to anaerobic conditions. It is named FnrS because its expression is strongly dependent on fumarate and nitrate reductase regulator (FNR), a direct oxygen availability sensor.Tetramethylammonium chlorideColes PhillipsPrecipitation (chemistry): Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution. When the reaction occurs in a liquid solution, the solid formed is called the 'precipitate'.Nitrogen deficiencySilent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis protein family: In molecular biology, the iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis protein family of includes proteins involved in biogenesis of Fe-S clusters (iron-sulfur cluster insertion protein, Fe/S biogenesis protein). This family includes IscA, HesB, YadR and YfhF-like proteins.SRX expansion boardAmicyanin: Amicyanin is a type I copper protein that plays an integral role in electron transfer. In bacteria such as Paracoccus denitrificans, amicyanin is part of a three-member redox complex, along with methylamine dehydrogenase (MADH) and cytochrome c-551i.CrassaFormate dehydrogenase (acceptor): Formate dehydrogenase (acceptor) (, FDHH, FDH-H, FDH-O, formate dehydrogenase H, formate dehydrogenase O) is an enzyme with system name formate:acceptor oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionSLC26A2: The SLC26A2 protein is a member of the solute carrier family. In humans, this transporter is encoded by the SLC26A2 gene.San Bernardino Valley: The San Bernardino Valley is a valley in Southern California. It lies at the south base of the Transverse Ranges.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Amphibacillus xylanus: Amphibacillus xylanus or A. xylanus is a gram-positive-spore forming bacterium with cells 0.Oxidoreductase FAD-binding domain: B:7-104 B:7-104 B:7-104Dihydrofolate reductaseProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Operon: In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of genomic DNA containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single promoter. The genes are transcribed together into an mRNA strand and either translated together in the cytoplasm, or undergo trans-splicing to create monocistronic mRNAs that are translated separately, i.Potassium hydrogenacetylenedicarboxylate: Potassium hydrogenacetylenedicarboxylate is a potassium salt with chemical formula KC4HO4 or K+·HC4O4−, often abbreviated as KHadc. It is often called potassium hydrogen acetylenedicarboxylate or monopotassium acetylenedicarboxylate.Electron transfer: Electron transfer (ET) occurs when an electron moves from an atom or a chemical species (e.g.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Zero field splitting: Zero field splitting describes various interactions of the energy levels of an electron spin (S>1/2) even in the absence of an applied magnetic field. It is important in the electron spin resonance of biological molecules.Spectrophotometry: In chemistry, spectrophotometry is the quantitative measurement of the reflection or transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength.Allen, D.Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase: Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the methyl cycle, and it is encoded by the MTHFR gene. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase catalyzes the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a cosubstrate for homocysteine remethylation to methionine.Endodermis: The endodermis is the central, innermost layer of cortex in some land plants. It is made of compact living cells surrounded by an outer ring of endodermal cells that are impregnated with hydrophobic substances (Casparian Strip) to restrict apoplastic flow of water to the inside.Obligate aerobe: 300px|thumb|Aerobic and anaerobic [[bacteria can be identified by growing them in test tubes of thioglycollate broth: 1: Obligate aerobes need oxygen because they cannot ferment or respire anaerobically. They gather at the top of the tube where the oxygen concentration is highest.Constitutive enzyme: Constitutive enzymeshttp://goldbook.iupac.Heme arginateMethionine sulfoxideStatinSpheroplastGeranylgeranyl diphosphate reductase: Geranylgeranyl diphosphate reductase (, geranylgeranyl reductase, CHL P) is an enzyme with system name geranylgeranyl-diphosphate:NADP+ oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalises the following chemical reactionAmmonia transporterSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Sulfide:quinone reductase: Sulfide:quinone reductase () is an enzyme with system name sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionEagle's minimal essential medium: Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM) is a cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle that can be used to maintain cells in tissue culture.Canna Leaf Roller: Cannas are largely free of pests, but in the USA plants sometimes fall victim the Canna Leaf Roller, which can actually be two different insects. Larva of the Brazilian skipper butterfly (Calpodes ethlius), also known as the Larger Canna Leaf Roller, cut the leaves and roll them over to live inside while pupating and eating the leaf.Selenic acidFerredoxin: Ferredoxins (from Latin ferrum: iron + redox, often abbreviated "fd") are iron-sulfur proteins that mediate electron transfer in a range of metabolic reactions. The term "ferredoxin" was coined by D.Liquid junction potential: Liquid junction potential occurs when two solutions of different concentrations are in contact with each other. The more concentrated solution will have a tendency to diffuse into the comparatively less concentrated one.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Colorimetry (chemical method): In physical and analytical chemistry, colorimetry or colourimetry is a technique "used to determine the concentration of colored compounds in solution."Aerobic denitrification: Aerobic denitrification or co-respiration the simultaneous use of both oxygen (O2) and nitrate (NO3−) as oxidizing agents, performed by various genera of microorganisms. This process differs from anaerobic denitrification not only in its insensitivity to the presence of oxygen, but also in that it has a higher potential to create the harmful byproduct nitrous oxide.Enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase: Enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (or ENR) (), is a key enzyme of the type II fatty acid synthesis (FAS) system. Mutational analysis of the triclosan-binding region of enoyl-ACP (acyl-carrier protein) reductase from Plasmodium falciparum.Dithionous acidNitrobacter vulgaris: Nitrobacter vulgaris is a rod-shaped, Gram-negative, and a chemoautotrophic bacterium. It plays an important role in the nitrogen cycle by oxidizing nitrite into nitrate in soil.Arteriovenous oxygen difference: The arteriovenous oxygen difference, or a-vO2 diff, is the difference in the oxygen content of the blood between the arterial blood and the venous blood. It is an indication of how much oxygen is removed from the blood in capillaries as the blood circulates in the body.Margaret Jope: Margaret Jope (1913–2004) was a Scottish biochemist, born as Henrietta Margaret Halliday in Peterhead, Scotland.Molar mass distribution: In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value. The molar mass distribution (or molecular weight distribution) in a polymer describes the relationship between the number of moles of each polymer species (Ni) and the molar mass (Mi) of that species.Flavin groupPurple sulfur bacteria: The purple sulfur bacteria are a group of Proteobacteria capable of photosynthesis, collectively referred to as purple bacteria. They are anaerobic or microaerophilic, and are often found in hot springs or stagnant water.